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Third world are the countries which came into existence during the cold war (Meaning of third world, 2015). The third world involves list of all developing countries which lacks in number of resources. In order to convert the developing country in developed one, tourism plays a crucial role. This is because, the given industry opens source of generating foreign income for the developing countries. This leads to the growth of developing nation. Thus, in the present report, there will be critical evaluation of theories of tourism development.
Britton, 1982 has analyzed the theories on tourism development in third world economies. It is called by the name of dependency or underdevelopment theory. Dependency theory states the relationship between first and third world countries. This theory is the part of underdevelopment theory. Dependency theory depicts that development of third world country is totally dependent upon the first world nations which are developed. In addition to this, the given theory also states that imperialism of western people has chocked the growth of third world nations by draining the capitalizing of country and by killing the local industries through unequal competition (Migdal, 2015). This theory also depicts that for the development, third world nations are dependent upon the developed countries which possess immense amount of resources, technology and money.
However, it has been critically evaluated by many authors that the development of first world country is also dependent upon the third world nation. This is because, it is with the help of given nation only, first world countries which are also called as core nations will be able to direct their efforts in terms of importing the necessary resources from the given countries at cost effective prices (Escobar, 2011). Thus, it is correct to say that the first world country emerges at the expense of third world which is also called as periphery nations.
In addition to this, dependent theory also has the feature that it is also considered as the process of historical conditioning which transforms the internal functioning of under-developed countries. This factor leads to cause disintegration of indigenous economy. Furthermore, it has also being critically evaluated that the dependency theory of tourism development does not give much emphasis on the world structure (Haynes, 2013). However, instead of that, the theory gives much emphasis upon the connection that held between indigenous economy and outside world.
Furthermore, the theory also depicts about different types of dependency such as enclave and nationally controlled production. In enclave dependency, foreign capital is used for the purpose to develop the sector of nation's economy. In this type of dependency, major benefit is being gained by the nation who possesses foreign capital. These countries use the resources of developing nations with an aim to increase their own wealth (North, 2012). However, in return of increasing their own wealth, these nations give minimum amount to the countries that have fulfilled their resource’s related needs and demand in an effective way.
In nationally controlled production type of dependency, the production activity is regulated by the small indigenous group of capitalist which is tied with the foreign capitalist. Britton, the author of an article, that is, “The political economies of tourism in third world” has used the given theory with an aim to identify the prospects of tourism development in third world country (Kapoor, 2015). Thus, it is right to say that the respective author has given immense contribution in the aspect such as tourism development in the third world.
In accordance with the given context, from the article, it is assessed that the country which has been dominated more in third world by foreign capitalistic will likely to possess greater chances of being counted among famous tourist destinations at present. This is because; foreign capitalist prefers to choose that country for investment which possesses resources in immense quantity. On contrary to this, article also states that the nation which historically seems not so important for the metropolitan interest tends to reduce its chances of being established as a successful tourism country.
Besides this, it can also be stated that the concept such as tourism development and sustainability are interrelated and interconnected with each other. It is due to the fact that by developing and enhancing tourism within country, third world can increase its chances of being called as the economically developed nation (Dharma and et.al., 2012). Furthermore, it is by complying with the given type of activity only, nations can sustain or develop itself in such a manner which will assist them with regard to compete with the nations which are called as developed. In addition to this, by developing tourism, country can raise its source of generating foreign income from number of sources. The income generated through the given mean can be used by third world nation for the purpose to carry out its own development.
There are varied economic and political forces assessed that are playing a crucial role in shaping the tourism development in number of destinations. In this regard, it can be said that the economic factor such as recession and inflation plays a vital role in developing tourism in number of destinations. For example, in recession, it becomes difficult for the enterprise to attract large buyers towards nation. (Kelly, 2013). This condition reduces development activity of nation. This is because; it causes direct impact upon the disposable income of local people. Furthermore, in this condition, people don't prefer to perform investment. Moreover, the government of nation will not take any measure to perform the promotion of tourist destination of country. Thus, due to this, tourism development in number of destinations that belong to particular nation will be impacted.
In addition to this, population and demographic structure of country is regarded as another economic factor which also plays a critical role in shaping the tourism development. For instance, country which possesses highly skilled and educated citizens will lead to attract more tourists than others. This is because; with the help of these types of inhabitants, country can attract large number of tourist within nation. This thing will contribute to the economic development of nation or the specific tourist destination.
On the other hand, the political structure of country also plays an important role in the process of attracting large number of travelers towards destination. The liberal policy of government for tourist plays a critical role (Anghie, 2013). For instance, the country which possesses more complications for tourists to get entry in the nation will lead to attract fewer tourists than other.
In addition to this, policies and regulations of government for privatization are being regarded as the major factor for tourism development of country. For instance, the nations which possess more liberalized policy for privatization will lead to open opportunity for their own with respect to attract large number of tourists towards nation in an effective manner. This is because, through privatization, the work and function of travel and tourism firm can be streamlined (Haynes, 2013). Furthermore, it is through such type of activity only, more travel and tourism options can be given to the respective tourists. Thus, it can be said that the economic and political forces has importance for the nations such as third world economies that are pursuing growth through tourism development.
It can be stated that with the help of dependency or underdevelopment theory, information with respect to third world countries can be gained. Furthermore, by assessing varied economic and political factors, actions can be taken by the nation with regard to use them for their own development.
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