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Festival and Event Tourism are prominent aspects of tourism activities globally. While event tourism is associated with adoption of tourism activities for some specific event, festival tourism refers to tourism activities for some certain festivals (Akhoondnejad, 2016). The following project is based upon role of festivals and event tourism. It covers analysis of broad spectrum of festivals and how they relate to culture, heritage and tourism and evaluation of the nature of public sector policies for festivals and event tourism. It also covers strategic planning framework for development of festivals and event tourism.
Culture refers to amalgamation of behaviour, no rms, values, beliefs within the citizen of the country. It is a expressions shows by the people by doing dance, music, rituals, religions etc. Besides this, heritages spells all the qualities which the country has in their traditions that have been passing over the years. Both the above mentioned point make the national festival in which they share their experiences like foundation Europe day etc. Modern day trends in tourism have shown the world that culture, heritage, events are one of the most elements of the tourism and its industry. Every tourist in the world now wants to learn about the every country they visit as it magnifies their trip in a positive way. Besides this, events plays secondary part in the destination visit in which it assist the tourist to enhance their engagement experience with the country. There are many examples in which festivals and events organised in the country shows culture for it. For instance, One of the best dance festival in the world organised in Gujarat India with the aim of celebrating the modhera sun temple by showing the past of the country. This mesmerizing festivals held in the month of January every year and attracts thousands of tourist all around the globe (Fairs and Festivals of India, 2019) Other eyes catching example is in Scotland, UK is burns night in which country celebrate the great legendary poet Robbie burns. Citizen of Scotland organised dinner on the burns night in which they eat haggis which is traditional country's dish which includes sheep heart, liver, lungs, taties etc. Women wear gowns and male counterpart wear kilts and ready their poetry, listen traditional music and dance etc (Burns Night, 2019). Main aim of celebrating this type of festivals is to enjoy their culture and be proud it by doing traditionalism things. At last Bunkum Mela which is one the biggest gathering in the planet which happens every three years gap. This Mela held in Praygraj in India where they worship their God Shiva. It held in different places of India like Bananas, Haridwar, Ujjain and Praygraj. Reason behind this culture and heritage festivals is in which Lord Brahma advice Shiva started churning of nectar of immortality and could not share with any other Asuras. People has a belief that some portion of the nectar fell in these four mentioned positions (10 Surprising Things about the Bunkum, 2019). It is expected from the sources that more than 150 millions people will visit this events from more than 100 countries in the world (Whopping 150 million expected to attend, greater than population of 100 countries combined, 2019). But government and people should take care that while promoting their cultural and events they should considered about the environment and try to enhance it instead of deteriorating.
Tourism plays an essential part in the development of country and their various sectors as it produce small and medium enterprise to grow, creation of job to many unemployed people, enhancement in the infrastructure etc. (Getz and Page, 2016). There are many positive aspects of tourism to the local economy which is explained below,
It has the main benefits to the regional level as it assist them to increase their tourist in the territory which generates high amount of profits to the government. It also increases sustainability of income of the people living their, besides this market will grow due to which chances of more jobs is high (Cultural Heritage for Inclusive Growth, 2013). For instance, Glastonbury is the 5 day festival which happen in Somerset, England and have attracted more than 175, 000 people all around the world. It leads to better flow of money in the region level due to which living standard and disposable income of citizen enhances to a certain level (Best UK Festivals 2019, 2019)
This factor is connected with the economic impact of the festival in the country tourist spends their money to the local level which generates money for the country. For instance, tourism sector in UK assist main economy by contributing more than 3.7% of GDP in 2017 which will rise with the average of 2.1% in 2018. Along with this, it also reduced unemployment rate of UK to a certain level as it creates 4,055,000 jobs in 2017 which will rise to 4,113,500 jobs in 2018 i.e., 11.8% of total employment (DEFINING THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF TRAVEL & TOURISM, 2019). So it can be said in the last then it assist country to enhance their financial situations so that they can become the global leader.
But on the other side there are some negative aspects of organising event and festivals like increase in the price of land where it is happening, more money is charged by the local just for the sake of earning money, corruption while organising it etc, low pay to the workers (Employment Opportunities and Challenges, 2016).
Tourism in an industry is a very important and crucial activity as it adds to prosperity and growth of a country. Public sector consists of those organisations which are directly controlled by government There is a crucial role of UK public sector policy in event and festival tourism. The public sector policy sets out various reforms in relation to governance of event and festival tourism. It has stated various agendas which are required to enhance festival and event tourism within the country. For instance, it aims at funding ambitious and promising marketing campaign which helps the country in attracting visitors globally. Moreover, the policy also sets out strategies which aims at enhancing proportion of residents within the country that participate in UK's event and festival tourism, for instance, UK music festival, than those who participate on global levels.
UK public sector policy also strains at bringing tourism bodies within the countries together which would help and assist them in working together to enhance value of event and festival tourism within the nation. Moreover, to a certain extent the policy stresses at the aspect that partnerships must be formed between public sector and local attractions and businesses which would allow strengthening the scope of event and festival tourism effectively.
Development of festival and event tourism is one of the major concern for UK public sector policy. For instance, the Notting Hill Carnival within the UK have witnessed various political changes on various factors within the festival such as density of people and public safety, presence of security and police, provision of facilities, location and routes associated with travelling to and from the festival, etc. UK public sector policies effectively emphasises on development of local and regional festivals in order to enhance festival and event tourism at national level.
All the dynamics which are being adopted by the UK public sector policy focuses appropriately on development of events and festival tourism. From involvement of local authorities, to activities being held, to funding, etc. all these activities are rightfully addressed in the policy. The main agenda satisfied the same through its various steps and strategies is to develop the scope of these tourism activities and enhance these activities on a global level.
There are various strategies which are adopted by UK public sector policy to develop event and festival tourism. For instance, these tourism are treated not just as an aspect for tourism development but also there are separate events and arts strategy for the same. Such diverse strategies are being adopted to develop these events and festivals to further enhance the scope for such activities in the nation.
Within tourism, it is imperative that each destination which is prosperous for tourist activities are marketed well. UK is being treated as one of the most amazing tourism destination lately. With rise in social media, more regional as well as local level destinations are seeing the light of the day and are attracting visitors from various parts of the world.
Destination marketing refers to all the activities which are associated with promoting a destination. The sole agenda of such marketing is to attract more tourists to spend their holidays within these locations. Another purpose which it effectively accomplish is building up loyalty within these visitors which enhances frequency of their visits in the country.
The most importance aspect of destination branding within the country is that it enhances perception of cities and effectively. It enhances the possibility of acceleration in workforce and tourism business development. London, Bath, Edinburgh, etc. are all effectively top destinations within the UK which possess adequate tourism opportunities and attraction points. Destination marketing would enhance the scope of visitors preferring these destinations above all.
On the economical front, destination marketing assists in creating jobs for local individuals and generate appropriate tax revenue. This helps in creating an interests in visitors which develops tourism activities in these areas. Moreover, to further enhance the effect, local suppliers could help companies in creating interesting and valuable packages which interests the travellers and tourists. Moreover, cross-promotional campaigns could appropriately be developed which would further encourage tourists in spending time within that specific destination.
It also enhances the scope of competition. This is because various tourism destination provide similar services to visitors which might be threatening in development of activities in those destinations. Destination branding with appropriate and effective promotional activities would develop the ability of these places to motivate further tourists towards the nation and its destinations (Yolal and et. al., 2016).
Lastly, destination marketing strategies applied by the companies allows them to assess available resources and required ones which would help generate maximum ROI. For instance, various technologies related to tourism could help in attracting a huge number of tourists to experience these activities. Moreover, it helps in festivals and event tourism too as it helps in raising awareness of people in regards with cultural importance and emphasis of these events. Thus, it is crucial for various cities and local spots to adopt destination marketing to enhance the scope of tourism activities in their area.
Decades ago, tourism was only based upon hospitality, accommodation, entertainment ad transportation sector with a number of attractions for visitors such as amusement and theme parks, museums, sports amenities being at the heart of this industry. People generally perceived the meaning of tourism with that until festival and event managers and organizers understood that there existed a scope for tapping an area which is not yet explored by any business or sector. In today's dynamic and modern world, tourists not only travel for relaxation or leisure but also for entertainment purpose. They travel for the purpose of attending a workshop, meeting, conference, event, festival etc. These are the personnel who have largely contributed towards the development and growth of festival and event tourism industry across the globe (Todd, Leask and Ensor, 2017).
Every year, innumerable events are planned for and organised across the world which attract tourists towards the destination. In this regard, various festivals and events that take place within United Kingdom are Notting Hill Carnival (London), Hogmanay (Edinburgh), Diwali (Leicester), Robin Hood Festival (Sherwood Forest). To successfully organise these, destinations are now focussing upon figuring out the potential of the events in relation to achievement of tourist and economic goals and objectives. In order to do so, event managers or organizers need a strategic and developed portfolio approach. This is moreover similar to the manner in which an organisation strategically and practically analyses and develops their line of goods or services. This is a value-based as well as goal-driven approach which is necessary for deciding upon what destinations desire and demand from festivals and events.
The basic thought and idea associated with use of portfolio approach is that destinations as well as tourist enterprises need to use a strategic and balanced strategy for the management of events according to the perspectives of tourists and tourism. The contents of the festival and event portfolio or the planning for developing the destinations as per the needs and demands of tourists ought to be done owing to strategic planning instead of unrelated and random decision making. Portfolio approach can be referred to as the set of sequenced events which any destination has the capacity and audacity to offer while keeping in consideration the aspects such as costs, cultural values, market share as well as profitability (Mariani and Giorgio, 2017). Every event should possess the capability to meet different goals and objectives associated with development of festival and event tourism. Destinations need to develop the portfolio approach in accordance with the type, attraction and season of the tourism industry as well as the tourist market. The aim here is to lead to achievement of specified tourist and tourism values. Professionals and academicians are of the belief that the major significance and role of the portfolio approach is to attract maximum number of new tourists in order to retain them for a long time and look forward to the growth and sustainability of festival and event tourism.
Balanced and strategic event portfolios are basically devised and developed on the basis of one universal principle. All the events that are organised across the globe have local importance and recognition as well as tourists yet only a few of them are actually able to create a massive tourist demand. Thus, the hierarchy of events is going to be present in any type of destination with majority of events possessing little or negligible direct tourists attraction irrespective of the type or form of event. In this context, regional and local events which are located at the lower part of the portfolio model can not be of excessive significance for the destination reputation and stake while the mega and hallmark events that are at the higher part have an enormous tourist attraction. Mega and hall mark events have a long term and massive impact upon the attractiveness and brand image of the destination (Lundberg and et. al., 2017).
At the bottom of the portfolio triangle are local events which have incredibly low value and demand. These events are generally small as well as organised periodically or at times only once. The second group of events within this model are the regional events which have moderate value and tourist demand. Regional events can also be organised periodically or just for a single time. The third group in the portfolio is hallmark events which have higher value and tourist demand. Situated at the peak of this triangle are mega events which possess highest value along with tourist demand. This portfolio model devised and used by event organisers are capable of demonstrating that the measures for value can be market share, quality, image, community support, environmental significance, economic merits, adequateness, appropriateness and sustainability. This is an effective tool for effective evaluation and planning. It renders information about the ways in which planning can be done to improve and enhance their portfolio of events so as to maximise tourist value (Laing, 2018).
One of the strategic planning approaches for the development of festival and events tourism is the portfolio approach. Though this approach has many benefits, it also faces a lot of criticism from academicians and professionals. This approach does not take into account the action plan which is necessary for dealing with any unfavourable or adverse events that may take place during the course of event or festival organisation or management (Geus, Richards and Toepoel, 2016).
Thus, it is concluded that festival and event tourism have prominent role in enhancing tourism activities within a country. Culture, heritage, festivals and events are all interrelated and share a contributing and complimentary relationships. Festivals and event tourism have quite extensive benefits on all local, regional and national levels. UK public sector policy too has a very crucial role in development of event and festival tourism. Moreover, destination marketing is very important in enhancing these activities within a country. In addition, there is a vital need of developing balanced and strategic event portfolios for tourism activities and lastly, critical evaluation of strategic planning approach for development of events and festival tourism is important to determine shortcomings and enhance the scope of overcoming the same.
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