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Literature Review and Research Methodology

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Detailed Literature Reviews and Critical Analysis

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Introduction

A current project report is prepared on factors that are playing a prominent role in elevating expatriation in the UK. In the report, a detailed literature review is done on factors like organization role and reasons due to which they promote expatriation in the country. Cost cutting and lack of highly skilled workforce are the two main factors that are motivating firms to hire foreign people in their company for the projects that are carried out in the UK. Apart from this, there is a large population of foreign people in the UK. These people to some extent motivate their relatives to come and do a job in the UK. Thus, in the entire report detail, discussion and critical analysis are done on these factors.

Background of Study

Globalization is the buzzing word on which most of the experts in different verticals talking about. Globalization brings lots of changes across the globe in terms of cooperation among the nations in various sectors such as energy, IT and petrochemicals, etc. Cooperation in these areas promotes the sharing of intellectual capital among the nations. This gives a boost to expatriation across the developed nations like the UK and USA. The current research report is prepared on the expatriation that is happening in the UK at a rapid rate. Expatriation put a heavy impact on any national economy. Present research study mainly focused on the role that organization and individuals play in elevation of expatriation in the UK in the past couple of years. It can be observed that in past years UK economic cooperation increased with a number of nations of the world (Harvey, 2012). Due to this reason, a number of foreign companies especially Indian firms enter into an agreement with varied UK firms in varied domains like IT. It is a well-known fact that the IT skills of Indian people is excellent and labor cost is also very low. Hence, UK IT and other sector firms are inviting Indian and other nation’s people to operate the project in the nation. On this basis, it can be said that an organization plays an important role in the expatriation of foreign people in the nation. Similarly, individuals those resides in the UK have their relatives in the other nations. These individuals work on higher posts in the UK and by using their influence they make easy for their relatives to get employed in the UK. It can be said that organization and individuals play an important role in expatriation elevation in the UK.

Aims and Objectives of the Present Research

Aim: To identify the role that organization and individuals play in elevation expatriation in the UK.

Objectives of Research

  • To identify factors that motivate firms to increase expatriation in the UK.
  • To find out the role that people preference for residing in the foreign nation play in increasing expatriation in UK and organization role in making the same real.
  • To evaluate the contribution that foreign people living in the UK play in elevating rate of expatriation in the UK.

Significance of Research

There is a great significance of the present research study because expatriation is elevating at an increased rate in the UK. In the past couple of years, a sharp plunge is observed in the expatriation in the UK. Negative impacts of expatriation are also observed in the UK in terms of employment. It can be observed that some nations like Australia are making rules to reduced population of expatriate population in the nation. Results obtained from the present research study will help people in identifying varied factors that play a prominent role in increasing expatriate in the UK and to what extent they are playing a role in the same. On the basis of an output of present research study, further research can be carried out like if firms are contributing to expatriation in the UK then answer of question why they are interested in doing so can be identified (Fechter and Walsh, 2013). On further research, solutions can be identified to reduce expatriation in the UK so that more employment can be made available to the UK people. Thus, it can be said that there is a huge importance of current research study and it will act as a foundation stone for commencing further research to solve employment issues that the nation currently is facing.

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Rationale of Research

It is another important section of the present research study. It is important to conduct the present research study because it is necessary to identify the factors that on organization level play an important role in increasing expatriation in the UK. On the basis of the present research study, government and policymakers will come to know about an area where they really need to work in order to increase employment for local people and to increase elevation in intellectual capital in the nation. Thus, it can be said that results obtained from the research will generate a lot of inputs that will be taken in to account by the relevant entities for taking relevant decisions.

Structure of the Report

Below is the structure that will be followed to prepare the dissertation.

Introduction

In the first stage the introduction section will be prepared and under this in detail research topic will be taken in to account. Detail discussion will be done in this section about the research topic and aims as well as objectives will be developed.

Literature Review

This will be the second section of the report and under these different authors, articles are reviewed in detail. Critical analysis of the discussed topic is done in order to find out the opinion of different scholars on the same topic. This will help one in developing a broad understanding of the topic.

Research Methodology

In this section of report approach, philosopher and methods that will be followed to conduct research will be explained in detail with full justification.

Data Analysis

In this section, data will be analyzed by using thematic analysis method.

Discussion and Conclusion

In this section, all results are discussed and then a conclusion is formed and on that basis, a recommendation is given.

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Literature Review

To identify factors that motivate firms to increase expatriation in the UK

According to Counsell, (2011), there is a number of factors that motivate business firms to expatriate employees from outside the nation. Cost is one of them, it is observed that in nations like the UK there is high employee cost and due to this reason the overall cost of business increased at a rapid rate. It must be noted that the cost of employees covers a large portion of the overall cost of business. Thus, it is very important to keep the same in control. This is done by hiring employees outside the nation. UK firms pay a very low amount to the expatriates and these people convert the same amount to their domestic currency which increased its monetary value. Hence, by following this approach firm successfully reduce its employee cost. This is one of the factors that motivate firms to promote expatriation. It can be observed that large firms like CISCO, Fidelity Systems, and other IT firms to large extent make use of expatriate employees to complete their large size project at a cheaper cost.

Contrary to this Varma, Pichler, and Budhwar, (2011) state that cost is not a big factor due to which firms are following the concept of expatriation. Currently, firms are operating their business in varied nations of the world. There is a term organization culture that reflects principles, policies, and ethics that are followed by different partitions of the world. In order to grow business consistently, it is very important to treat all employees equally. Hence, firms time to time invite employees from multiple nations to work on projects that are carried on abroad. This reflects that firm is not giving importance only to its nation employees but is treating the entire workforce equally. This lead to the development of group cohesiveness among the people. It can be said that apart from cost there are multiple factors that heavily affect the expatiation in the nation.

As per views of Doherty, Dickmann, and Mills, (2011) intention to make use of the pool of talented people is another reason for practice under which firms are inviting foreign people to work in their nation. It can be observed that highly complex projects on IT are operated in the UK but for doing so highly skilled labor force is not available in the mentioned nation. In order to make project successful business firms are hiring Indian engineers on their projects. Thus, it can be said that a lack of good talent in the homeland is also one of the main reason that is responsible for the high rate of expatriation in the UK. It can be said that it is one of the main reason that is responsible for high level of expatriation in the nation. It can be said that firms are compelled to hire talent from outside the nation. There is no other option available to them. Increase in cost and lack of talent are the two main prominent factors due to which firm are focusing on involving foreign people in the projects.

Contrary to this Al Ariss, (2010) state the lack of talent cannot be considered as big reason responsible for expatriation of foreign people. This is because there are one of the well-known education and technical university in the nation that is generating better and highly qualified professional. Firms of foreign nations are doing innovation in the business operations in a specific domain and due to this reason, their expertise developed in the specific domain. On this basis, it can be said that firms that are established in the UK take service of outsiders. Means that there are some areas where the UK have the expertise and its intellectual capital is used to perform the project. But there are some areas where things are different and foreign nations have better technology base. Thus, UK firms hire foreign people, so it is a case of specialization not lack of talent or cost of business operations.

To find out a role that people preference for residing in the foreign nation play in increasing expatriation in UK and organization role in making the same real.

According to Jenkins and Mockaitis, (2010) in several nations of the world especially those that come in an area South East Asia there is large population whose ambition is to do a job in the foreign nations like the UK. Such kind of people either do a low level of work in developed nations or do some course in these countries in a specific domain. Foreign students easily got an admission in the UK for studies and after completion of same people prefer to do a job in the UK. This is because one got an opportunity to work in the foreign nation after completion of a study. It can be said that people prefer to work in a foreign nation is one of the main factors due to which expatriation is increasing at a fast rate in the UK. There is a number of a university like Cambridge University that is popular among the people for the education system in the foreign nations. Such kind of universities attracts a number of people from foreign nations to come and study in the UK for higher studies.

Contrary to this Collyer, (2013) state people aspiration to do a job or residing in a foreign nation is not the main reason due to which expatriation takes place at a higher rate in the nation. This is because there is a number of people that have aspirations to do work in the foreign nation but all of them does not make an effort to get the shift in the foreign nation. It is the firm’s decisions to hire foreign people to do a project. Thus, the fact people aspiration to visit foreign nation cannot be considered a big reason for the expatiation of foreign people in the nation.

To evaluate the contribution that foreign people living in the UK play in elevating rate of expatriation in the UK

According to Tharenou and Caulfield, (2010) to a great extent, foreign people that reside in the UK play an important role in reassigning expatriation in the nation. It must be noted that those foreign people that live in the nation are at higher post then they have high influence power. Such kind of people easily make arrangements for the employment of their relatives in the UK. Thus, a consistent increase in expatriate people leads to a fast increase in the population of foreign people in the nation. It can be said that a consistent increase in the population of foreign people leads to more percentage increase in same.

Opposite to this Harrison and Michailova, (2012) state that even number of foreigners are residing in the UK, it does not mean that they are promoting their relatives to visit the UK for education or job purpose. It can be said that foreigners that are residing in the UK are not very much for promoting their relatives to arrive in the UK for job purpose. It depends on the individuals whether they decide to do a job in their own nation or foreign place. Thus, it can be said that foreign people that are residing in the country are not playing any big role in promoting expatriation in the nation.

Research methodology

Research Type

There are two sorts of researches namely primary and secondary research. Primary research is one that is done for the first time by the researcher. This means that facts values are collected by the researcher at his own level and none of part is collected by the other person previously (Dickmann, 2012). On the other hand, secondary research is one under which data is already collected by any person and the same is used by the researchers in its own research work. In the current research study, both primary and secondary data will be collected. Secondary data will be analyzed under the section of the literature review in the report. Secondary data will be collected from books, journals, and magazines. On the other hand, primary data will be gathered by distributing questionnaire among respondents. Collected data will be analyzed by using a specific method.

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Research Design

Research design includes exploratory, descriptive and experimental methods. All these research methods are different from each other. An exploratory research design is used in the research when the researcher does not have knowledge of the research topic and wants to know about the research topic. On the other hand, descriptive research method is one under which one does not know anything about the research topic and wants to know more about the same. An experimental research design is used when one conduct scientific research. In the present research study, exploratory research design will be selected because in order to understand a concept in a proper manner first of all secondary data will be collected and then primary data will be gathered (Research design, 2017). According to the selected research design appropriate technique of data collection will be used in the present research study.

Research Approach

There are two sorts of approaches that are used in the research studies namely inductive and deductive approaches. Both of them are the opposite of each other. In the case of the inductive approach, first of all, observation is done and on that basis, data is collected. On the basis of the collected data pattern is identified and analysis of hypothesis is done and on that basis, a theory is formed. Whereas in the case of deductive approach theory is identified and same is tested by using a specific tool. In this regard data is collected and the same is analyzed and on that basis, a theory is confirmed and theory is tested. In this way, the deductive approach is used in the research. In the present research study, an inductive approach will be used and on the basis of analysis of data, theory will be developed.

Research Philosophy

In the research study, two sorts of research philosophy are used namely interpretivism and positivism. Interpretivism philosophy is one that is used when one is conducting non-scientific research and positivism philosophy is one which is conducted when one intends to conduct scientific research (Panas and Pantouvakis, 2010). It must be noted that in the present research study non-scientific data will be analyzed and due to this reason, interpretivism philosophy will be used in the current research study.

Data Collection Methods

There is a number of data collection methods that are used in research studies. Data can be collected by distributing a questionnaire or by observing others. In the present research, the study questionnaire will be distributed among the respondents and then collected data will be analyzed by using a specific tool (du Plessis and Van Niekerk, 2014). There is a number of merits of the data collection method because under this it can be ensured that data is collected from the candidate that has strong knowledge of the research topic. If the same will be ensured then it can be said that reliable data is collected in the present research study.

Data Analysis

In the research studies, a number of data analysis tools are used. In the current research study in order to analyze the data thematic analysis method will be used by the researcher. Under this approach, the response received on each element of scale will be analyzed and charting of the same will be done to identify the specific direction in which there is a need to make decisions. It can be said that there is a huge importance of the data analysis section for the present research study.
Validity and reliability: Validity and reliability are the important factors on which one need to pay due attention every time while research is conducted. This is because it is very important to ensure that data that is collected in the present research are highly reliable in nature. Apart from this, it must also be ensured that data is valid for the research study. By doing so it can be ensured that research is carried out in the right direction and results generated by research are highly reliable in nature. It can be said that there is a huge importance of validity and reliability feature in the research.

Validity and Reliability

Validity and reliability are the important factors on which one need to pay due attention every time while research is conducted. This is because it is very important to ensure that data that is collected in the present research are highly reliable in nature. Apart from this, it must also be ensured that data is valid for the research study. By doing so it can be ensured that research is carried out in the right direction and results generated by research are highly reliable in nature. It can be said that there is huge importance of validity and reliability feature in the research.

Ethical consideration: In the present research study all ethical norms will be followed and under this, it will be ensured that data that is collected from the respondents is highly reliable in nature. This will be done by entering data into excel sheet which will be password protected (Soni and Kodali, 2012). Apart from the researcher, no one will be able to access the data without permission. This will ensure that data is safe and no one can misuse it for self-interest. It can be said that the appropriate approach will be followed in the present research study to ensure that information will remain safe.

Time Frame

                                                                  Time Frame

References

  • Al Ariss, A., 2010. Modes of engagement: migration, self-initiated expatriation, and career development. Career Development International.
  • Collyer, M. ed., 2013. Emigration nations: Policies and ideologies of emigrant engagement. Springer.
  • Counsell, D., 2011. Chinese students abroad: why they choose the UK and how they see their future. China: an international journal.
  • Dickmann, M., 2012. Why do they come to London? Exploring the motivations of expatriates to work in the British capital. Journal of Management Development.
  • Doherty, N., Dickmann, M. and Mills, T., 2011. Exploring the motives of company-backed and self-initiated expatriates. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
  • Du Plessis, H. and Van Niekerk, A., 2014. A new GISc framework and competency set for curricula development at South African universities. South African Journal of Geomatics.
  • Fechter, A.M. and Walsh, K., 2013. The new expatriates: Postcolonial approaches to mobile professionals. Routledge.
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