Introduction to GPS
Global Positioning System (GPS) which is to used to track geographic location of person or object. In order to process, information’s are received from satellite and precise information of location is provided to user. Information’s are processed by using various level of calculations in order to obtain exact information about speed, time and location of object. Still some issues are associated with it related to security and authentication of users (Driankov and Saffiotti, eds., 2013). GPS involves lower level authentication process due to which data can be attacked by hackers. HERE is one of the leading company providing mapping and navigating services world wide. This report contains impact and vulnerabilities of GPS systems. On the basis of that outcomes are also analysed. Various other types of navigation systems are considered.
Impact of GPS
Global Positioning System (GPS) is used to provide location related information to users. In this data is revived by satellite (New alternative to GPS. 2017). Civilian GPS does implement any authentication due to which security issues may raise. It has both positive and negative impact. Some of them are following:
Global positioning system has lots of positive impact. It is influencing every field such as business, society, economic and education (Ekhaguere and et. al., Honeywell International Inc., 2013). Through this services quality and effectiveness of work get improved. Some of them are following:
Business: GPS plays important role in success of business. Through this government and private agencies are able to track location of vehicle, by using wireless communication medium. As they are easily integrated with mobile devices, due to which managing and processing of system become simple. It also helps by providing navigation facility due to which driver do not face any difficulty (5 problems with tracking system 2017, 2010). It can be implemented in various sectors, such as merchandising and amusement purpose by providing information about speed, navigation, longitude and latitude. It is effective in every medium such as air, water and land. Here company provides services to BMW and other car manufacture for better navigation facilities.
Society: It cause huge impact on society. Through this safety and simplicity of communication process get increased. by using the service, parents are able to track their children through installing it into their mobile. Some watches are also available containing this feature. Various car manufacturing companies are also including this feature into their system for effective navigation service (Frazier, 2015). It helps to trace the locations of criminal and can be used to rescue in emergency conditions. Along with this there are various applications of global positioning system in society. Here provides various app and devices in order to resolve securities issues of society.
Education: In current scenario, lots of schools are using navigating system in order to supervise the activity of teachers and students. Some of the subjects are integrated with this system in order to provide better understanding of concepts. Such as speed, directions and mapping problems of science and maths. Along with this various practical sessions are also takes place by using this service (Peeters, Teller and Patrick, Google Inc., 2015). Different skills such as communication, art and high order thinking projects are collaborated with this navigation process. There are lots of scope of this technology in future.
Economic: Global positioning system is making huge impact on economy. By integrating GPS system with other technology performance can be improved. Impact of GPS can be easily measured because revenue of each sector get increased. Through this services productivity quality and quantity get improved due to which economy of country get raise (Psiaki, Miller and Ledvina, Coherent Navigation, Inc., 2014). Rapid change in technologies takes places due to which standard of implementating technologies also get increased. Applications and services provided by Here in creating huge increment in revenue for organisation.
Global navigation system has lots of negative impact on society. Some of them are following:
Society: One of the biggest drawback of GPS is it can be used for illegal activity and cause lots of damage to society. Such as various drug dealers and smuggler. They can use this applications in order to find any safe location for dropping product to their partner. Current navigation systems are not containing any proper authentication process. Lack of authentication process data can be easily hacked by hackers (Kauffman and Raquet, 2014). Availability of jammers can also influence its performance, because it will not able to receive signals. Through tracking and tracing location and phone of individual violation of law also takes place. As Here is not restricting its use, in that case it can be used by unauthorised person which can cause big issue related to safety.
Vulnerabilities of using GPS
Global Positioning Systems are provided with weak authentication processing due to which vulnerability of system get increased. It can be easily hacked and interfaced by hackers and informations can be theft (Bartels, Elektrobit Automotive Gmbh, 2015). This can be considered as biggest disadvantage of this device. In this system informations are received from satellite in the form of signals. By using different devices, informations of signals can be changed and easily access by unauthorised person. Which may cause theft of information or can create false interface and collect informations of users. Some of the devices are jammer and spoofer. They both are considered under illegal activity.
Jamming: In this information or communication channels are interfaced. Usually, cellular jammer is used in order to distort transmission process of signals. As a result information will not be received at the base station. In this process takes place at different level such as network, radar and Wi-Fi. Availability of jamming devices at cheap prices, helps hackers in order to interrupt service. This is considered as illegal activity and various laws are their in order to stop such activity. Earley, Here is also not providing backups facilities for such situations but know they considering various measures.
Spoofing: This is another technique of interrupting signal processing. In this GPS reviver will receive wrong information. In order to spoof any GPS network, only small GPS stimulator is required, and through this network system can be easily distorted. Along with this it can also break layers of technological security in few minutes. Example of spoofing is “Pokemon Go”, in this some smartphone users are getting informations without getting outside form their home (Leonard and Bahr, 2016). In order to prevent this, game developer banned players by terminating account who are getting false informations, for safety purpose. Along with this various companies had also faced such issues where confidential information is controlled by external object of organisation. Companies are facing lots of issues due to stealing of important information which may impact on the growth. Spoofing is considered as area of research for HERE, they are implementing various approach for this.
Hacker interface: As GPS are enabled with low security features. Under this technique, hackers are able to create false environment of GPS reviver. For this they use to bounce the information coming from satellites by sending fake informations to user. Through this user will share location and other details with unauthorised person. Which may cause danger for society. As connection between GPS devices and satellites are established by calculating speed, longitude, latitude and orbit. Through this hackers can easily establish connection by using fake data for calculation.
In order to prevents these issues of GPS, currents systems containing various safety feature. Along with this various level of authentication process also takes place before establishing connecting with new devices. Along with this availability of jamming and spoofing equipments get reduced. Unavailability of these devices highly affected the hackers, due to which performance of get improved (Li and et al., 2014). Safety of exchange process is also maintained. For this selective availability anti-spoofing module(SAASM) can be placed into satellites. Through this spoofing and jamming activities can be controlled. Military is already using this safety feature , in order to maintain confidentiality of information. Along with this various technologies can be implemented at operating system, so that they can access information in access denied situation.
From this issue of jamming can be resolved at some level. Here is considering M-code and SAASM in to their applications. Another effective approach is encoding of information while sending and receiving process. Through this way hackers will not be able to decode the information. Along with this stealing and modification of data do not takes place (Shashua and et. al., Mobileye Vision Technologies Ltd., 2017). In order to enhance the security of system PNT approach is considered. In this connection is established by comparing three parameters such as position, navigation and timing with the previous one. After ensuring the comparison results connection will be established. This process is known as M-code. This is considered as an effective anti-jamming and anti-spoofing strategy. Along with this backup of coverage area is also provided to user in order to ensure appealed option.
Outcomes of GPS
Global positioning system is considered as an most efficient system in order to track location and provide navigation to user. Some of them are following:
Cost cutting of labours: By using this system, drivers are able to reach destination faster. Through this travelling time get reduced so requirement of more drivers get decreased (Liu and et. al., 2014).
Reduced consumption of fuel: Drivers are having these services. Using the system, they can accessing shortest and correct path in order to reach faster.
Reduce paper work: through this facility drivers are able to access navigation. Service provider is also able to track vehicle (Mehler and et. al., 2016). Which reduces the requirement of paper because system is maintaining the record of tracking information.
Improvement on service: It also helps in order to improve service. Such as while using this system delivery process of products become faster due to which customer will be more satisfied.
Types of navigation systems
Navigation and tracking system is mainly divided into four types based of their working. Such as following:
Hard-wired GPS tracking system: this GPS system is mainly developed of vehicles. In this power is provided from the battery of vehicle. System containing brain unit and antenna which is attached at dash board and external side to vehicles. On the basis of bash board movement information is send and received through antenna (Schmid and et. al., 2014). BMW and various other car manufacturing companies are using the applications of Here company into their cars. In this process condition of vehicle is important factor. All calculations may get affected if car is not efficient.
GPS Loggers: In this informations are stored in fixed intervals and stored into internal memory of device. For this some slots of internal memory are provided to the devices. Along with this they are provided with ports in order to connect with USB drives and memory card in order to exchange informations. Here is also developing applications and devices providing ports for external connections. It also provides downloading facilities in order to get precise informations related to location.
Personal GPS trackers: This types of tracking systems are installed into mobile and small devices. By using this system user is able to locate other user and object. In this informations are revived for satellites in the form of signals. Nokia is developing new mobiles by using application of HERE company (Nikovski and et. al., Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Inc., 2015). Under this system sender will request to system for particular location. The request is send to satellite by system. After calculating location by using speed, velocity, longitude and various other feature. Information is received by system and further, forwarded to user.
Real-Time GPS trackers: In order to send and receive navigational informations continuously, real time GPS trackers are used (Rose and et. al., 2014). Through this service users are able to access location any time. Systems are consists of high level of software, in order to provide sophisticated services to clients. In this system device is installed into Real- time applications in order to provide multitasking facilities to users.
On the basis of above report, global positioning system is considered as an important invention. It is very useful for business, society and education system. HERE is developing applications and devices for mapping and navigations various other companies prefer their products such as BMW and Nokia. In order to develop application they consider types but Hard-wired GPS tracking system affects their economical growth by generating high revenue.
- Driankov, D. and Saffiotti, A. eds., 2013. Fuzzy logic techniques for autonomous vehicle navigation (Vol. 61). Physica.
- Ekhaguere, D. E. and et. al., Honeywell International Inc., 2013. Systems and methods for unmanned aerial vehicle navigation. U.S. Patent 8,543,265.
- Frazier, C., 2015. Re-Active Vector Equilibrium: A Novel Method of Autonomous Vehicle Navigation using Artificial Potential Fields (Doctoral dissertation, Université d'Ottawa/University of Ottawa).
- Kauffman, K. and Raquet, J., 2014, May. Navigation via H-field signature map correlation and INS integration. In Radar Conference. 2014 IEEE (pp. 1390-1395). IEEE.
- Leonard, J. J. and Bahr, A., 2016. Autonomous underwater vehicle navigation. In Springer Handbook of Ocean Engineering (pp. 341-358). Springer International Publishing.