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A Key Factor in the Business Environment - Costa Coffee And Starbucks

University: UK College of Business and Computing

  • Unit No: Xyz
  • Level: Undergraduate/College
  • Pages: 32 / Words 8046
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: L/508/2389
  • Downloads: 477
Question :

This sample will let you know about the:

  • Discuss about difference between Costa and Starbucks.
  • Discuss about the Research Methodology.
  • Discuss about the Type of investigation.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Costa Coffee and Starbucks


Customers are a key factor in the business environment because if customers are not present then all business activities would become direction less. Activities that take place in corporation are to be customer centric. Every customer makes choice over a brand by considering many factors and these aspects should be consider by all companies so that actual need of clients could be addressed in most appropriate manner because only this reason can retain customers for longer period of time (Streukens and Andreassen, 2013). When a customer gets higher satisfaction from a product or services than he/she reconsider that same item for next time. If a person changes its preferences of a brand then it is assumed that other brand would have prior quality and there could be any reason behind changing customer preferences. Sometimes a person does get higher satisfied with a product and in that case individual searches other items and companies and keep changes un5til a prominent and higher service provider would not get. There are some situations which is helpful in selection of a brand and could be like influences, references groups and recommendation from friends and family etc. Customers are key people for an association because consumers are those who purchase all manufactured goods an services and that is why marketing department focuses upon entire population in order to con vert them in customers of company. Services industry relies majorly upon customer satisfaction because there is no physical product that can be examined before its use. This research revolves around two companies one is Costa Coffee and other is Starbucks (John and Banerjee, 2017). These two are running their business operations in and around UK and deals in services support items which are first attribute of three level product elements. In this case, services like seating, serving etc. are included as support because core products and food dishes like junk and fast food along with beverages for example, cold & hot coffee etc. When a person makes choice upon Costa coffee then this assignment would analysis that why people selected this brand and what is unique in services that Costa Coffee is providing to their clients. This was an example and more situations and customer preferences would be discuss ahead.

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Background of Research

Current research relies upon comparison of two companies and their customers simultaneously discussing about factors that are having their influences in making selection over a brand and these two companies are Starbucks that is running its business in and outside United States and are popular in serving luxurious quality services having headquartered in Washington in US (Rajasekaran, 2015). On the other hand, another firm is Costa Coffee that operates in and around United Kingdom and headquartered in Dunstable, UK. These two companies are operating their business in same industry but have some different attributes that stands them apart from each other in industry and because of this people have distinctive choice of companies and customer base depends upon type or quality of services that both the corporations are offering in marketplace. There are various factors that are responsible for selection and switching of brand.

Background of Organisations:Present research is based upon two companies that are running in same industry and shares some specific attributes. One company is Costa coffee that is situated in Dunstable, UK and having around 7000 employees are employed in this venture. This firm was started by Whitbread PLC in the year 1971. this firm is running in and around UK and are serving large size of population and due to this action venture is generating higher range of profit along with gaining wider market share in industry. Costa Coffee mainly serves hot and cold coffee, tea, ice-tea, ice-drinks and in food dishes it offers sandwiches. This firm is having approx 3401 stores in 31 countries. Costa Coffee has its specialisation in Italian coffee shops that is what people are loving and wanting this venture. Apart from a coffee house Costa is a whole seller of roasted coffee beans which are selling by association on wider range. This coffee house was started by Costa family and later on it was acquired by Whitbread PLC in 1995. on the other hand, Starbucks is a US based company which is running in and around United States. This coffee house is situated in Washington, US and also provided employment to approx 238000 people and this is a huge contribution in strengths of economy. Specialisation of this coffee house is that it is good in serving quality services that are liking by customers and this is the reason behind consumer retention and strong customer base of company (Schoja, 2016).

The rationale for the study

It is required from a researcher that it should provide a clear picture of research objectives so that all possible outcome should be generate and should be advantageous for those who are associated with this investigation and expecting all positive and most opportunistic outcome. Research should be good and appropriate because there are many people whom are linked with investigation objective. Before executing research work properly, it is expected from investigator that he/she will analyse all rationale that are connected with research so that efficiency of investigation could be bring (Bangcuyo and et. al., 2015). This present report is based upon comparison of customer preferences between two coffee houses. In this regard, there are many factors that influences decision of a person and these aspects are having huge impact upon transformation of a person into customer. All elements that are related with research program should be considered before making study and specially before executing research outcome in business activities. When all components are clear and clearly analysed then it is evident then this type of action is helpful in defeating competitors in marketplace by attaining competitive advantages.

Potential significance of the research

Current research is based upon comparison of customer preferences regarding two coffee retailers along with analysing those factors that are having huge impact in decision making of a person while deciding some thing. For example if a person have choice that Costa coffee is better and this was made up by him due to influences of its friends group who first tasted servings of this firm. Present study is based upon brand selection among all present options so that a better alternate should be choose. There are many tools and technologies that could b4e chooser in order to find out significance of entire research program. When importance of research is done then it will easily be made in structure of organisation and this type of action is useful in implementing change in best possible manner so that all task could get done in most appropriate manner.

Herewith this, present research is fruitful in attaining higher knowledge and information that is useful in successfully running business operations in marketplace. When a clear distinction is made upon choices and tastes of consumers then firm can easily determine that how they can enhance their level in task accomplishments (Mahobia and Jain, 2015). Adequate analysis is helpful in making decisions by providing more accurate and appropriate information. this is more understood with one example, if management of a company knows that what is customer preferences and how much it is related with products and services that venture is offering in marketplace and if there is no strong connection between items and facilities of associations in respect to consumer preferences then research can help in improving quality of items so that it could become those desired products that are able in addressing consumer needs and wants for getting higher satisfaction among consumers and then this kind of behaviour is helpful in gaining higher market share in industry. When all products and services are customer centric and able in fulfilling consumer demand with highest satisfaction then this type of task accomplishment is useful and stands company apart from its business rivals in market (Tang and et. al., 2018).

Research Aim

Research aim can be considered as a general statement which concerning the overall goals, intention and ends of the study. This is a most important part of any research program because this action provides direction to investigation activities and aim of present research is “To examine customer preferences of two leading coffee retailers and main basis that customer make selection over a brand and determination of factors that contribute to the distinction between the two Coffee shops.” A case study on Starbucks and Costa Coffee.

Research Objectives

This is also an essential part of research program because research objectives are distribution of investigation aim in small task and goals so that all objective could get attain in limited period of time. This section of research helps the researcher in moving forward towards right direction on the basis of specified issue of the research. The major purpose of conducting a research is to overcome with the issue of the research in effective manner. This can be evaluated in the form of small statement in which research issues defined in appropriate manner. The essential objectives of this particular research are described as under:

  • Investigate customer preference of either Costa or Starbucks.
  • Investigate similarities and differences of Costa and Starbucks.
  • How customers perceive each of them?
  • How did they position themselves to attract customers?
  • Why customers would prefer one or the other?

Research Questions

This section of research plays effective role in analysing the research activities in effective manner. This part of research is interlined with the objectives of the research as it effective in simplifying the research project through comparing the opinion of various authors and writers. This part of research is mainly effective in conducting the section of literature review as it helps the researcher in providing a theoretical framework in order to accumulating appropriate outcome for the research work. Some important questions which are related with the research issue are described as below:

  • Do customers have specific requirements for choosing which coffee outlet they frequent and is this dependent on the company brand.
  • Is the preference of customers based on additional elements than only the choice of coffee?
  • What differentiates one brand from the other in the context of customer preferences.

Chapter Structure

This is the most essential part of research project which plays vast role in conducting a whole research project in effective manner. It is the major responsibility of researcher to design an effective time frame in respect to implementing all research activities in well planned and systematic manner (Hainmueller, Hiscox and Sequeira, 2015). It is essential for researcher to implement all research activities in appropriate manner as to reaching at final result and outcome. Each research project consider following points which are described as under:

Chapter 1: Introduction

This is the fundamental aspect of research project as the whole activities of research are based on this section. This section provides a systematic procedure of analysing the accurate outcome of the research. This section provides helps the investigator in developing the chance of attaining valuable results and outcomes. In this section research issues is mentioned in the form of research aim and objectives which plays vast role in executing the whole research activities in an effective way. If you are worried about University Assignment Help UK at the best price.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This segment is likewise an essential advance in entire paper process in which different creators speak to their perspectives and conclusion towards the exploration theme. Alongside this, different sources are likewise utilized by analyst for social event pertinent data for taking right decision. In expansion of this, it is one of the essential piece of whole research (Manning and et. al., 2012). On the off chance that specialist actualize great data and also dependable sources inside their analyst which may leads in achieving set points and destinations in best way.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

This is also an another important part of research project which create value in implementing all research activities in effective manner through selecting an appropriate methodology (Müllensiefen, Hennig and Howells, 2018). It incorporate different apparatuses and strategies which help investigator to actualize a compelling analyst which may leads in accomplishing positive results. It incorporate different techniques by which researcher effectively actualize their exercises keeping in mind the end goal to achieve positive outcome.If you want to get authentic paper as per the prescribed deadline, then consider seeking insurance law assignment help from our assignment writers.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis

This section plays effective role in research project as it is important for analysing whole data and information which are gathered by researcher as to accumulating appropriate outcome and result. This section helps the researcher in taking appropriate decision which contributes in enhancing the effectiveness of the particular study. This part helps in covering all aspects of that are involved in research aim and objectives.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation

This is the final stage of research project as it helps in evaluating an appropriate outcome and result. This will help in achieving positive outcomes so as to upgrade the viability of the task and its results too. Aside from this, proposals are additionally give by investigator to enhancing the real execution of the organization. With the assistance of this organization upgrade their execution level and furthermore actualize inside their specialists to accomplish better achievement.

Time Scale

This consist to be the effective part of research as it is essential for investigator to design an effective time frame in which whole activities of research are mentioned in detailed manner (Schmitt, 2012). This provide a significant direction to the researcher to implement all research activities in well planned and systematic manner. In this activities are assigned as per their priority which plays effective role in completion of research project within the desired period of time.


Literature review is the most essential part of of any experiment. This aid to give detail information about the various step which are included in performing experiment it also plays a significant role in finding the effective result of particular experiment which is being done by the researcher in proper manner. This part is based on ascertaining different types of views which are taken by different resource by the investigator in order to accomplish various steps of experiment in proper manner (Morris, 2013). It also give deep knowledge about the gathering of various types of data ad information which collected by the investigator which helps to perform experiment in proper manner. Literature review provide appropriate figure and facts which are collected by the different resource in proper manner. Their different types of journals, magazines,different online sites and many other medium which are used to accomplish the effective result in proper manner. This part aids to perform different types of activities which are taken in order to perform various types of strategies which are used in this literature in proper manner. This aids to accomplish desired outcomes of the experiment. There are different types of resources which are used by the investigator in order to perform different steps of research in proper manner.

2.1 Customers have specific requirements for choosing which coffee outlet they frequent and is this dependent on the company brand.

It is well known that the success of every company depends upon their customers as they are the only ones who avails their products as well as services and make the company strong in the market. There are various kinds of efforts a company has to make so as to attract the customers towards them as there are various kinds of competitors available in market for them.

It is very difficult for the company to understand the choices and preferences of the customers as it keeps on changing and thus it becomes really difficult for the company to interpret it and make products as per that .

From the point of view of de Lima Francisco and et. al., (2016), it can be depicted that there are various factors are considered by the customers while making their choices and preferences about a particular product. In case of coffee shops; people normally choose those places where they like the taste of coffee and the surrounding environment is also cool. Since there are various kinds of coffee shops available in the market and all of them are having a good brand image in the market so sometimes customers are really confused about which places to visit. But there are also certain factors which help the customers in deciding their preferences and they are like:

  • BRAND NAME– This is considered as a very effective factor which is having a strong influence on the decisions taken by the customers while choosing their perfect products and services. There are various kinds of customers who decides to visit a particular place if it is costly and is having an extremely good brand image as they believe that it will be good for their image as well. In context to COSTA and STARBUCKS, both these brands are very famous and is being loved by the customers as well. But, in this both the brands are equally renowned and their cost of products is equally high but the taste of their coffee is different from each other which help the customers on deciding which brand to choose.
  • Product placement– This is also an essential factor which needs to considered by the clients while making their choices about the place they like to visit. It is very necessary for every company that they are properly placed in the market as through this only they will be able to attract customers towards themselves as well. In case of COSTA and STARBUCKS, both the products are well placed in the market but since COSTA is more like a luxurious company so it is normally being attracted by those consumers who are having high income and those who can afford it as well.

According to Park, Eisingerich and Park, (2013),There are various kinds of similarities between COSTA and STARBUCKS and they are like:

  • Target customers – This is a very effective factor which can totally relate with the types of products and services which are being presented Costa and Starbucks in the market. Both of them are targetting the youth of society as they are the only ones who are consuming more anoint of coffee ten other coffee products.
  • Cost - This factor determines that whether the customers will prefer their products or not. Normally , Costa and Starbucks are having a very good market share and the quality of products which they serve is also good so the prices of their products is normally high since they incur more cost in producing it as well.
  • Coffee Farms – This is also one of the common factor between both the companies as they both are having their own coffee farm where they are producing their own coffee beans and are selling it in various kinds of varieties as well. They are trying tyo give natural taste to their customers but the only difference they face in it is their aroma and taste.

The difference between Costa and Starbucks are as follows:

  • It has been evaluated that the premises of Starbucks have a lighter look and feel whereas Costa is having dark woods and is very effective for people who are feeling depressed.
  • It is also being expressed that the staff members of Starbucks are more effective than Costa.
  • The design of the counter is better in Starbucks as compared to Costa as they serve all the customers in an better manner and no mess is being created by them in the outlet.

2.2 The Preference of customers based on additional elements than only choice of coffee.

According to OLŠANOVÁ (2012),There are some methods that are helpful in identifying customer needs and wants along with preferences because on this taste, type of purchase depends. This type of action is helpful in identifying what customers are actually wants and which type of product can address their actual needs and wants. Understanding customer preference is important task for management in order to make selling function successful because of customers are key people on which entire business functions revolve. This could be understandable with this statement that from where will profits come if customers are not present in marketplace. A firm can make huge profit if it is able in addressing customer taste and preference in most satisfactory manner. There are some ways by which customer preferences can be identified.

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Identify whom are customers: For analysing that whom are consumers that have sufficient buying power and how can be they addressed are some kind of questions which should be answers before starting business activities. This section does not mean that researcher will know them personally apart from this, it involves customer segmentation into sub sections. This segmentation depends upon age, gender, geographical area etc. in order find out best target customers, researcher can use various methodologies. By providing sample products in a specific area that company thinks is having potential and interest of purchasing product and then behaviour regarding that item would be measured.

Conduction of Customer satisfaction Survey: This is a most suitable method for analysing whether customers are on ease with that item which is offered by Costa Coffee. Researcher can conduct a survey for identifying that why people mare using some specific brands. This type of behaviour is understood by one example like researcher has views researcher conducted a survey for identifying if people are frequent in visiting Costa Coffee instead of Starbucks then what are the determinants that influence customer to choose specific brands other another brands. If a company is offering great customer services and adequate quality products in that case this action attracts more and more customers towards Costa Coffee and if there is a little change in service quality then this becomes reason of brand switching.

Non Product Factors that Influence Purchase Decision

According to Steenkamp, (2017), When it comes to selection of a brand over another then a customer consciously and sub-consciously weights on several factors that are helpful in making selection over a brand. Product factors are having direct influence on item itself. If a person wants to but a product and finds another similar product then that consumer relies upon quality of item that varies on product to product. There are some factors which are included in this segments which are stated as beneath:

  • Brand Name: Brand is what that have its distinct image in the eyes if customer and in what extent brand equity and responsibility attached with that customers relies upon. This is a huge factor that affects consumer decision. In UK Costa Coffee is have more brand value than any other company then it is a big element that have its influence upon choice of customers.
  • Product Placements: In physical environment, product placements is a huge task which is having vast significance in selection of a brand. It is easy for customers that to find those products which are clearly visible in stores rather tah n those items which are placed in some kind of hiding place that needs to be found by clients. In context of Costa Coffee and Starbucks, if location of Starbucks is easily findable than Costa Coffee then for once this brand will make huge customer basis in order to sale services and products which are also having high quality products in order to cater needs and wants of customers.
  • Packaging: There are some products that catches attraction of many people because of its packaging. Starbucks and Costa Coffee deals in food products and this case packaging should be good for take away orders. For example if a customer orders sandwich or burger than packaging should be good so that product could not be hampered till it is not reached to its destination.
  • Reputation: It could be possible if a company is making moderate quality products and services and still having sufficient popularity in market and due to this promotion customers are having purchases. When a company does not cover larger geographical area but have requisite reputation in market then in that case people of that particular area will choose that company's products and services for catering their needs and wants.
  • Pricing: This factor influences many people while making choice over a product. When a client needs to visit a coffee bar than firstly it would be identified that what range of budget that person is having and which brand is good in this context. For example if customer are going to visit a coffee shop and have requisite budget then in that case he/she will choose Costa Coffee because it is a luxury coffee shop. On the other hand if consumers are having less budget than in that case clients would choose Starbucks in market place.

2.3 Difference between Brands in context of Customer Preferences

As per the point of view of Shin and Parker (2017),There are some distinctions in which a brands differs from another brand and this differentiation will explained further by analysing 4P's of Starbucks and Costa Coffee.


Costa Coffee



Major selling item of this firm is Coffee but other than this item, Costa Coffee also having many other varieties of brands like cold coffee, ice tea etc. and all these products are being loved by customers. Other variants of this company are Hot chocolate, Special drinks, tea, coffee, ice blends, sandwiches and other supplementary foods are some variety of Costa Coffee. In marketing mix strategy product is set on top most priority because an item is main objective of firm that fascinates human beings towards itself. This type of action is helpful in identifying customers needs and wants whether customer has attracted with Costa Coffee's items or not.

This firm is having its global presence because products and services that are served by Starbucks company is good and globally accepted. This firm is world's largest coffee house. Starbucks is offering unmatchable and unbeatable experience to its customers through serving best quality goods and services that are hard to imitate. Speciality product of Starbucks is coffee, it has entered various other products and services in its product portfolio in order to expand business operations. Main objective of expanding product range is to attract more and more customers by catering their needs and wants in most satisfactory manner. Products that are offered by company.


Prices are set according to type and quality of products and in this context Costa Coffee have opinion to set premium prices of its products and services as quality and attributes that items are having is good and able in attracting those customers whom are believe availing high quality products and services. Main reason behind setting premium rates to its items and facilities is that Costa Coffee is strictly standing on its vision and mission statement which is that company is having commitment with its customers that company will provide best coffee taste and with this best supplementary products like food and services to consumers.

Starbucks is a premium prices coffee vendor. This rate depends upon use of high end technology of company and quality of raw material that manufactures best quality goods and services that are able in catering human needs and wants. Starbucks started its ventures within low cost items with very few outlets and then many got prominent attention of customers and then association shifted on high quality and products along with premium rates of items and facilities. Low cost coffee was provided just to fascinate those customers whom are not able in spending higher money on coffee and likely products. Packaged products that are served by company are also available at retail stores that are more cheaper than any other item.


Costa Coffee has its awesome presence in marketplace with having over 1000 stores in Great Britain. But in other countries, presence of this company in other countries is very limited. Costa Coffee has not its presence in local places because it is found in malls, airports and another premium places. Positioning of this company is very limited because everyone is not having sufficient potential to buy items and facilities that this coffee house is offering to its customers. Costa Coffee is present only in urban cities which adds as positioning of this venture in and outside Britain in context of serving customers.

Starbucks is having its presence in around 70 countries in Africa, North America, Oceania, South America, Asia and Europe. In context of placements, Starbucks has approximately 5000 licensed stores in multiple locations. More numbers of outlets are present in USA. In order to remove all confusion regarding material and manufacturing, Starbucks has well designed websites that contains information regarding each and every elements of coffee production, varieties of coffees that are available at market, souring options, quality and farmer support etc. In this venture, customers could get their own coffee taste like espresso etc. All information that are associated with each and every aspect of company are available on its website.


This factor is almost absent in the case of Costa Coffee because this firms targets those customers whom are belong to high class and segments of society. At least, there is no above the line Vs. Below the line marketing. Main reason behind this behaviour is that company does not target large number of people all should be aware about all range of products and services. In case of Costa Coffee, below the line promotions are most suitable instead of above the line. For example, this firm is having adequate advertising on buses and out of door media in country.

Starbucks is quiet good in promoting their products and services that is this brand is highly considerable in the eyes of customers. When a company is good in promoting their goods and services then a prominent amount of customer attraction could be grabbed. There are various method that company uses as promotional tools and technologies like TV advertisements, print aids and various aids through multiple channels.


This is one of the most important part of the research project because her all those activities are included which helps the researcher in conducting their activities in effective and efficient manner. In this, the area of research is being well thought of so that the investigator can collect the data as per the requirements of the research so that effective outcome can be gained out the research in limited time period. In this, the researcher is also able to carry out the research in an appropriate manner since they know all the techniques and tools which are required to be implemented through which effective outcome can be gained (Kolk, 2013). These methods or tools and techniques are being chosen by the researcher so as to draw valid results from the research process. All these techniques are necessary to be applied properly otherwise they will not be able to achieve their desired goals and objectives within the time frame set.

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Therefore, the project managers hires experts who help the company in addressing various kinds of factors which can help them in doing their investigation in a proper manner and complete their activities within stipulated time period as well. It is seen that, scope of epistemology and theories are developed on respective area of scholars from time-to-time basis which help to attain aim and objectives effectively in constricted period of time. So, it was estimated that if the research methods is being applied effectively at the company then they will be able to conduct their research process in an effective manner and develop their position in the market as well. It has also been said that the researcher is able to make correct decisions as they should have this quality of choosing the most appropriate method for their research process so that set aims can be attained. For selecting method, various kinds of study is required to be done so that most appropriate decision can be made.

3.1 Type of investigation

If the investigator wants to know that they are doing their activities in an effective manner then they will have to consider various kinds of factors through which it can be ascertained in an effective manner (Bookman, 2013). With the help of this, they will be able to make use that their activities are being conducted in an effective manner and in corrective actions as well. This is a very necessary step which is required to be considered by the researcher as after choosing appropriate research type only they will be able to conduct their research in a suitable manner and derive effective results from it as well. Basically, there are two types of research programs that can be applied by the investigator and they are; qualitative and quantitative (Gopalakrishna, Victor, and Fleischmann, 2016). In this, it is interpreted that the qualitative research is based on the quality of data that has been gathered by them for their research project, and in the case of quantitative data, the focus is mainly on statistics, data, and numbers, etc. Are you required Kaplan Assignment Help at the best price? Please contact our experts. 

3.2 Data Analysis

This is the most necessary step which is required to be conducted by the researcher once the data is collected by them. It is also required that the data should be collected at the right time and at the right place so that correct matter can be gathered by them and effective outcomes can be gained. There are various methods through which data can be collected by them and these are qualitative and quantitative. In case of qualitative methodology, the data can be collected in numerical forms like in terms of customer satisfaction, trends, culture and human behaviour etc. on the other hand, quantitative methodology is that type in which the data can be collected in number format and if the researcher wants to have more accurate results then they will have to conduct this type of research process.

3.3 Research design

This part of research methodology is required to be conducted on priority basis as in this they have to make a design of the whole research process which will be conducted by the investigator in the company. It is a kind of blue print of all the activities which will be implemented in the research process by the project manager as well. Once, it is prepared all the activities are being conducted in an effective manner. There are various kinds of research design which can be applied by the researcher and they are like experimental, descriptive and exploratory research (Berger and Blake, 2016). All these techniques are very effective but all of them cannot be applied by them. So, the design which is implemented under this research is exploratory research design since qualitative research will be conducted here. Another reason for selecting this kind of research design is that it fulfils the needs and demands of the customers and valid results can also be drawn upon after them.

3.4 Research philosophy

It is regarded as a process through which the project managers can gather the data in an effective manner ad is being utilised as well. The research philosophies which can be applied by them are like positivism and Interpretivism. Since it is known that the research is being conducted on preference of the consumers about both Costa and Starbucks, so there will be several factors which needs to be discussed in this so as to achieve their research in an effective manner (Wilsonâ‘ a, Wilson and Whittingham, 2013). Here, the investigator is making use of Interpretivism philosophy. So with the help of this factor, the organisation will be able to assemble good elements through which they can attract large no. of customers.

3.5 Research Approach

Research approaches are segmented in three parts which are explained as beneath:

Deductive Approach: If some set of hypothesis is made in the case of research dissertation that must be confirmed or rejected then in research process then in that case researcher is following deductive research approach. In deductive approach, developments in migrations in EU are assessed for constructing hypothesis for conducting adequate research program.

Inductive Research Approach: This model does not contain formulation of hypothesis. This section starts with research aims and objectives that are to be attained by conducting appropriate research program in market. This method starts with observations or tests then a pattern has to be made and then further a theory is to be developed. According to this way customers preferences and choices is to be measured in order to find out why a person is relying on particular brand and have less intention to switch brand. For example, research question would be; How does external elements affect choice of consumer over selection of one coffee and another.

Abductive Research Approach: This research model is devoted to explanation of unfinished observations, surprising facts, puzzles etc. at the time of starting research program. This section also have two parts which are one is qualitative ad other is quantitative. Both these methods are relevant to data collection and reliability of data depends upon adequate selection of research methods (Qian and Xing, 2016).

Relevance of hypothesis is the main distinction among all parts of research approaches. Deductive approach entitled with test the validity of assumptions in hand. On the other hand, inductive contributes to evolution if new theorises and methods and generalisations. In last abduction research approaches is starts with surprising facts or puzzles and their explanation.

3.6 Data sampling

This is a very necessary factor which is required to be considered by the researcher because once the data is not gathered then they will not be able to conduct their process in an effective manner. It has been assessed that there are various techniques through which the company can select their data sample and they are probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling. It is being well known that both these approaches are effective but if the researcher will implement probabilistic sampling technique then there are high possibilities that the data will be collected in an appropriate manner (Webb, 2014). So, in this research investigator has selected probabilistic sampling technique and questionnaire will be prepared through which questions will be asked to the people who was being selected by them through random sampling. Also, the no. of respondents which are chosen here is 15. Get the best online assignment help at a cheap price.

3.7 Methods of data collection

Data collection is a procedure of gathering information which is done for finding answers of research questions by testing hypothesis and evaluating problems. Data collection is segmented into two parts and both of these sections are stated as beneath:

  • Secondary Data Collection Methods: secondary data is defined as information which is already been analysed and published in records like books, journals, newspaper, internet and other method. Secondary data are outcome of other person's research program that was conducted for his/her specific research topic. Some piece of information that researcher thinks that could be gathered from other investigator's outcomes is comprised in secondary data. This category include various methods but is not limited to those approaches only and these tools are publication, credential of writer, reliability of source, quality of discussion, in-depth analysis, extent of contribution in order to test development of research area etc.
  • Primary Data Collection: This type of data collection is sectioned into two sub parts and these parts are illustrated as below:
  • Quantitative Data Collection Methods: This model is focused upon those data that could be represent in numerical format and could be analysed by putting some formula in order to generate more accurate information (Das, Eisner and Korn, 2015). This section contains, questionnaire with closed-ended questions, methods that are related with correlation and regression, mean, mode and median and many others. Application of quantitative data collection method is more cheaper than any other method and generates outcomes in shorter duration of time.
  • Qualitative Data Collection Methods: This is a vice versa method to quantitative method and this type of model includes that study of words, sounds, feelings, emotions, colours and other components that could be represented in numerical format because this method is non quantifiable (Frynas, 2015). Main objective of this type of data collection method is that it provides in-depth study of a topic by conducting interview, survey, questionnaire with open ended cases etc.

3.8 Ethical Considerations

This section is identified as most significant element of a research program because main objective of this segment is to provide ethical guidance like what is right and what is wrong in context of research programme. If this part is missing from research program then investigation could be a failure. This section has some parts and these portions are stated as beneath:

  • It should be clear to researcher that any part of investigation could not be harmed nyone in nay manner.
  • All priorities should be set before like dignity of all investigation should be set on top priority so that efficient and relevant information could be collected.
  • All consents should be clearly spread to all participants so that they could be ensured that why are they giving this information and whether it is relevant or not. (Huang and Benyoucef, 2013)
  • All adequate privacy should be provide to research participants so that they could provide sensitive information to researcher in order to make relevant information that could make most appropriate and authenticate outcome.
  • Data confidentiality should be maintained by investigator so that any claim could not be made.
  • It should be ensured by researcher that if participants are not interested in revealing their identity then it must be keep confidential in and after accomplishing entire research program.
  • If there is any deception and exaggeration is present in research aims and objectives then it must be avoided.
  • All possible elements like sources of funding filling of forms etc. along with conflicts should be declared.
  • Communication should be done with clarity and honesty in order to gather authenticate information (Davies and Gutsche, 2016).
  • Biased and misleading information should be removed from data collection method so that best quality research outcome could be generate.

If all above stated aspects are measured and maintained with maximum efficiency then in that case most authentic and appropriate research outcome would be generate. This type action is helpful in providing adequate direction to research program.

3.9 Validity and reliability

This section should be comprised in research function in concise manner and elaboration of this validity and reliability are explained as further.

Reliability: It is defined as accuracy of an outcome that is gathered by using same methodology again and over again. If a researcher should be highly reliable so that all methods could be used in appropriate manner so that adequacy of methods should be captured.

Validity: This term is defined as how long outcome of a research program is valuable and authentic. This elements is focused upon time duration which is having most usefulness of investigation outcome.


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