This sample will let you know about:
- What is organisational behaviour?
- Discuss the importance of learning soft skills.
Organisational behaviour is referred as an interface that takes place among group and individuals prevailing at workplace. It is used for analysing of performance of both individuals & group members working in an organisation. It involves factors such as performance, job structure, motivation, communication, leadership and so on. This study mainly emphasises on building positive environment within the premises so that company can gain higher opportunities in an effective manner. In the present report, Primark is chosen as a base company.
It is a fast fashion retailer which was founded by Arthur Ryan in year 1969 (Balwant, 2018). Primark head office is located at Dublin, Ireland. The company offer product such as clothing, housewares and cosmetics. In the current report, the effect of culture, politics & power on behaviour is discussed with relation to company. The report covers motivational theories that is content as well as process theory. In addition to this, a differentiation between effective and ineffective team and various models for the development of team are going to be included. At last, it covers various philosophies as well as concepts of organisational behaviour.
Determine the effect of Culture, politics & power on behaviour of both individuals and Teams.
The study of behaviour of individuals as well as team members prevailing at the workplace is termed as Organisational behaviour. The main motive is to gain an understanding about behaviour and performance of employees. This will assist companies to know the requirement of employees and then fulfilling it. Along with this, it helps an organisation to retain all the staff members for longer time frame and save down the cost of recruiting new employees. The management has analysed that company is doing well in the marketplace as compared to its competitors but as soon as other companies get recovered from the recession, Primark will have to survive in the tough competition. In order to maintain the same consistency, it has been realised that culture, politics and power play great role in this. Hence, top authorities are going to understand the same and make adjustments in existing policies and plans for achieveing favourable results (Jacobs and Manzi, 2019). An individual or team performance is affected by power, culture & politics of an organisation which are mentioned below:
Culture: It involves beliefs, norms, values, traditions of an individual that effect on their behaviour as well as performance. The culture of an organisation affects positively and negatively on the behaviour of team members and individuals. By the assistance of positive culture, an organisation has the opportunity to motivate its employees and raise the performance level of company. Some of the types of culture which exist in an organisation, have been discussed below:
Person Culture: This culture is all about the employees wherein the staff gives more importance to itself than its organisation. The main focus and concerned of workforce is for their own goals rather than the entity. Prime motive of personnel is to earn money which often leads them to suffer. With the existence of this culture, the behaviour of individuals become negative towards the organisation. This in turn affects the profitability of the corporate as employees devote most of their time achieving their own self goals. This makes them lose the zeal to accomplish organisational targets (James, 2017).
Role Culture: Herein, the roles & responsibilities of employees is clearly assigned to them that helps companies to implement business activities in an effective manner. An organisation has high control on the activities if this culture is being followed. Furthermore, individuals get some power depending on the position they hold. This states authority within which the each person is allowed to act. This can reduce conflict with the allocation of work as roles are already assigned to every personnel. But, there can be situation of slow decision-making as well as the risks factor is considerably low as compared to other culture.
Primark follows role culture where the roles for each employee is decided on the basis of their skills and capabilities so as to accomplish individual as well as organisational goals.
Power: It is basically the ability of an Individual to influence all the staff members prevailing at workplace. With reference to Primark, the power of taking decision is in the hands of Top level management of company. There are various forms of power which is discussed below:
Reward Power: This power is related with the rewarding employees for their good performance. It is the way to keep the staff follow instructions for achieving goals and objectives. By the assistance of this power, an organisation can motivate and influence its workforce in a positive manner. The company gives appreciation or monetary benefits to employees as per their performance (Knights and Willmott, 2016). This helps them to boost morale of all staff as well as team members that leads to increase in productivity and efficiency of employees. Order assignment help from our experts!
Coercive Power: It is basically the power of higher authorities to give orders to employees and punish them if it is not followed properly (Kitchin, 2017). It is determined that, this powers brings down the morale of employees and demotivate them that directly declines their efficiency and productivity level. This power develops negative mindset of employees due to which their performance lowers down that directly impact on the profitability of a company.
Primark is known for its strategies and policies for employees and by taking the needs of the staff into consideration, it follows reward power. It gives monetary as well as non-monetary benefits to keep employees motivated and focused on their assigned goals.
Politics: It is defined as a series of activities which take place at the time of interaction among individuals working at workplace. There can be positive as well as negative impact of this factor on the environment at workplace. For example, if a conflict arises in the organisation then consequences of the same can affect workplace environment adversely. Various types of politics have been mentioned below:
Positive politics: This refers to the situations making the staff work with enhanced efforts so that they can achieve the desired results. This motivates every employee to carry their activities with positive mindset which is works in the favour of the company. There are many benefits of this politics such as higher productivity, favourable results etc. It influence their behaviour in the right spirit.
Negative politics: This kind of organisational politics creates negative environment for the workforce. It affects their potential in an adverse manner to a great extent. This can be reduced by building good relations with employees which can bring trust among all the employees. This leads to lower productivity, increase in conflicts and many more.
Primark gives importance to positive politics for delivering desirable output within the time allotted for each tasks. This can be attained by winning the trust of employees which helps in keeping them motivated for a long time.
From the above discussion, it is determined that power, politics and culture effect on behaviour and performance level of an organisation. In addition to this, it is important for managers of Primark to maintain healthy environment within the premises so that productivity and performance of its employees is enhanced. Moreover, acquisition of reward power assist company to motivate all the staff members and increases profitability of an organisation. Need Assignment Samples?Talk to our Experts!
Hofstede's Cultural Dimension Theory: This theory is formulated by Green Hofstede which shows the effect of culture on behaviour and values of an individual. By the assistance of this theory, an organisation gets an understanding about different cultures (McShane, 2018). Hofstede's theory consists of six cultural dimensions which are as follows:
- Individualism vs Collectivism: It is referred as an extent to which societies are involved in groups and make mutual relationships in a particular community. UK follows individualism in the country therefore, Primark and other organisations follow the same. It gives freedom to do activities which leads to analyse the capabilities in oneself.
- Power Distance: It is defined as the degree at which low powerful society members tolerated & accept inequality. In addition to this, power as well as inequality is viewed from the point of followers that is from the lower level. There are policies for curbing inequality among people living in the country so that every individual gets equal opportunity. Primark also believes in bringing equality in the corporation as it is a legal requirement as well.
- Uncertainty Avoidance: This Index signifies the degree to which ambiguity as well as uncertainty is tolerated. It involves uncertainties, unexpected events and so on. UK makes different provisions for meeting needs take place in emergency situations so that it does not get loaded with burden. Similarly, Primark also consider the possible circumstances which can occur in future so as to avoid financial and other burdens on the business. In the absence of proper arrangement, it becomes hard for the organisation to survive.
- Femininity vs. Masculinity: it is defined as “Tough vs Tender” & involves preference of society towards equality, achievement, sexuality, attitude, behaviour and many more. UK is a male dominating country but there are women in corporate world who are serving at good positions. However, high involvement of females in different sectors is still required to be achieved. Therefore, Primark also considers that there are certain jobs which are suitable for males only. This goes totally against the policies of equality.
- Short Term Orientation vs. Long term orientation: It is defined as society rules which is based on old traditions. It involves both short term and long term dimensions. UK is transforming with the time by investing in technology so as to keep the pace with the changes taking place. Primark has also modified itself substantially by diverting business online and incorporating the changes in the technology.
- Indulgence vs. Restraint: This dimension is defined as the level of freedom which is given by societal norms to its citizens so that they can fulfil their desired needs. UK focuses on the concept of indulgence for engaging its people into the decision-making done by it. Primark motivates its employees to share their ideas and views in order to bring innovation in activities. This helps in achieving the desired output.
Influence Individuals & Teams to attain a goal
Motivation can be described as inner or psychological need that motivates an individual to enhance their performance level. Motivation is evaluated as motive, desire, need, want and act that help an individual to achieve organisational goals and objectives. Basically, there are two types of Motivation such as Extrinsic Motivation and Intrinsic Motivation. Extrinsic Motivation can be described as an individual behaviour that changes because of good performance on the basis of different factors. It helps in avoiding the punishment. Intrinsic Motivation can be represented as a person doing an act for the internal fun or self- satisfaction.
Motivational Theories can be described as a process of how and why individual gets motivated to achieve business goal and objective . Motivational theories are of two types that is content & process theory which are as follows with relation to Primark:
Content Theory: Content theory is about the factors which are identified in order to determine the cause that motivates individual to achieve the organisation goals. In context of Primark, the higher authorities can opt Maslow's hierarchy theory as a content theory in order to motivate its employees. This theory is mentioned below:
Maslow's hierarchy: This theory signifies that the basic needs of an individual is important to accomplish for organisation growth and development. It consists of basic needs, security, social need or belongings, self respect and confidence which is mentioned below with relation to Primark.
Physiological need :-In the context of Primark, the management team focuses on the basic needs such as air, water, food and shelter for the satisfaction of employees thus it increase the productivity and profitability of the organisation.
Safety need :- With reference to Primark, the higher authority focus on safety, job security or savings for the motivation of the employees to increase the efficiency of the organisation.
Social need:- With reference to Primark, the manager concentrate on the friendship, belongingness and love so that it maintains the healthy relation between the employees thus it motivates the employees to work towards achieving a goal and objectives of the organisation.
Esteem need:- In the discourse to Primark, the manager emphasised on the self respect of the employees by taking their participation in decision making , professional activities thus it enhance the confidence level of employees.
Self actualisation need:- In the context of Primark, the manager motivate its employees that brings out creativity and talent of employees of the company. This also encourage employees to work with full potential that leads to enhancement of productivity as well as profitability level of Primark.
With the application of Maslow theory of needs, Primark became aware about various needs which are significant in keeping employees happy and motivated. It can provide high satisfaction to workforce which leads to timely completion of goals and objectives.
Process Theory: This theory emphasizes on the variables or factors which are responsible for analysing and bringing meaning to the variance created in organisation. It consider the elements which bring change in the behaviour of workforce. Along with this, process theory analyse how requirement as well as needs of an individual will impact on their behaviour. With reference to Primark, the human resource manager can use Adam's Equity Theory as a process theory with an aim to motivate teams as well as individuals. This theory is described below:
Adams' Equity Theory:-This theory consists of two principles firstly, there must be a balance between the efforts ( input) and outcomes (output) of workers. Secondly, the workers should be fairly treated by the employers of the organisation. The input is the contribution made by the employees in the organisation such as knowledge and skills whereas the output is what they achieve in return such as rewards, remuneration and promotion (Pereira, Malik and Froese, 2017). Every employee looks for a company which gives equal opportunities for professional as well as personal growth. Furthermore, it is the basic human nature to the desired result for the efforts being put in a task. This helps in keeping the employees motivated and encourage them to achieve goals and objectives. In this way, it leads to timely accomplishment of targets so as to avoid any negative outcomes. This also enhances the contribution of individuals in decision-making.
Behavioural Psychology: it is also referred as behaviourism. This theory states that all the idea is generated by conditioning that occurs while interaction takes place with the environment.
Emotional Intelligence: It is basically the ability of an individual to understand as well as manage its own positive within a positive manner. This assist them to communicate with others in an effective manner and to easily overcome with the challenges.
Importance of Soft skills for Teams & Managers
Soft skills are defined as character as well as personality traits that shows relationship among an individual with other people. The most important soft skills are interpersonal and communication skills. The others skills that is included are Teamwork, Flexibility, leadership, creativity, problem solving, integrity and so on. This skill is significant for both the managers as well as teams in order to increase working efficiency. In context to Primark, it is important for the managers to have soft skills as it helps them to resolve and handle issues in an effective manner. Along with this, it helps them to bring out creativity and talent of its employees that leads to increase in efficiency and performance level of company (Wood and et.al., 2016). In addition to this, soft skills are required for their application by the team so as to scale up with the transformations taking place in rapid changing business environment. Moreover, it helps Team leaders to communicate and clarify roles as well as responsibilities to all the team members which leads to attainment of desired goals within the time frame.
Task vs Relationship Leadership
Task Leadership: This theory defines a leader who is encouraged as well as motivated in order to accomplish tasks. The leaders in this design policies and procedures which are communicated to the subordinates in order to effectively evaluate performance of employees. In context to Primark, Acquisition of task leadership by its leaders help company to perform task within the time frame that leads to attainment of organisation goals effectively and efficiently.
Relationship Leadership: Herein, leaders focus on maintaining effective relationship with all the staff members prevailing in the organisation so that they can retain them for longer time frame. With reference to Primark, usage of relationship leadership assist company to build positive environment at premises that will lead to raise in performance and efficiency of its employees.
Psychodynamic Approach: This theory is basically focuses on psychological forces which underline human feelings, emotions as well as behaviour & how it relates to the past experiences. In addition to this, it determines behaviour that is caused by unconscious factors as well uncontrollable factors. In context to Primark, it helps leaders of company to know the personality type of employees and maintain good relationship with them. In addition to this, it will assist company to retain its staff members for longer time frame.
Difference between Group and Team
It is the team in which all the members have positive outlook for their targets. This helps in timely achievement of goals (Alleyne, 2016).
There is lack of interdependence which often leads to non-accomplishment of goals. This makes it difficult for the entity to attain the objectives.
Leaders define the goals in a clear manner by limiting the scope of doubt. Every individual knows their sole targets so that efforts are being carried in the positive directions.
There is always lack of clarity in goals for ineffective team. This reduced the competition which result in delay in attaining the goals.
Team members always follow two way communication which helps in bringing openness. This gives a freedom to sub-ordinates to express their feelings and emotions.
One way communication is followed within the team member in this category. This creates issues among the individuals wherein the dialogue is discouraged.
Team members participate in decision-making process in which they share their ideas as well which helps in bringing innovation in the activities.
For ineffective teams, the decisions are always taken by top management authorities according to which they carry the activities.
Types of organisational Teams
The group of Individual who mutually work together to attain common objectives is termed as Teams. In an organisation, there are different forms of teams who perform business activities in a proper manner. These teams are discussed below with relation to primark:
Functional Team: It is the collection of people who have common expertise and work towards attainment of common objectives (Barzoki and Rezaei, 2017). In context to primark, development of functional teams will assist company to perform tasks in a defined manner and completed it within time frame.
Problem Solving Team: This teams are temporary in nature and emphasise on resolving a particular problem as well as issue. With reference to Primark, this team will help company to cope with any situations or circumstances and handles the problems in an effective manner.
Project Team: Herein, the team members collectively work together & share strategies as well as goals. A project team is established in a proper structure and is assigned with roles & responsibilities with deadline. If this teams are developed by higher authorities of Primark, it will help company to increase its profitability level and gain objectives within given time period.
Virtual Team: This team involves those employees who work and perform in different locations. The members of this team totally depend on communication mediums such as Emails, WhatsApp, Video Conferencing to perform and implement tasks in a defined manner. Nowadays, technology is changing rapidly as it helps companies to enter into other countries and increase its market presence that leads to raise in sales as well as profitability of organisations (Cherry, 2017). Primark works on global level, acquisition of this team help company to execute business activities in different countries and raise their profitability and market share.
Tuckman Team Development Model: This model was proposed by Bruce Tuckman in the year 1965. Tuckman theory emphasise on the performance of employees for a task from the time it is started till it is completed. It includes a continuous process which should be applied at a regular basis. Along with this, it states that development of teams will lead to establishment of good relationship among the leaders as well as employees. In context to Primark, Acquisition of this model assist companies to coordinate and manage team in an effective manner. This model involves five levels of team building which is described below with relation to company:
Forming: It is an initial stage of team building in which the members of team is assembled and task is assigned to them properly. Herein, all the team members work to prefer individually as they do not have trust on each other. In addition to this, team members start introducing them in order to make bond with other members so that they can perform assigned roles in an effective manner. In context to Primark, it is important for them to assign tasks in teams so that friendly as well as positive environment is developed at workplace.
Storming: Herein, the relationship is developed among the team members and they started to share their thoughts as well as ideas to all the team members. The thoughts and manner of implementing activities is not similar of all the team members so there is a high chance of occurrence of conflicts between the team members of the organisation (Chinomon and Dhurup, 2016). With reference to Primark, it is important for leaders to consider thoughts of all the team members so that no conflicts and issues arises at workplace.
Norming: At this stage, the teams agree with the rules as well as policies of an organisation. The teams started accepting the ideas of others and work together in order to attain objectives of an organisation. The decision was made by the agreement of all the group members that declines the level of issues arise among the teams. In relation to Primark, this will help company to gain higher growth and attain their organisational objectives within time frame.
Performing: Herein, teams starts focusing on achieving goals without any disagreements. They implement tasks as a team which is assigned to them by a leader in an effective manner. The members of the team take decisions independently and functions in an appropriate manner. In order to attain objectives, it is important for management team of Primark to give authority to team members to take decisions as it will motivate them and raise their efficiency level.
Adjourning: At this stage, the project is completed and the teams are disbanded. This stage is hard for those employees who develops good relationship with team members. In context to Primark, its top level management ensures that relationship among the team members will remain even after the completion of a project as it helps them to maintain positive culture within the organisation.
Belbin's Typology: This model was proposed by Meredith Belbin in year 1918. it involves Nine team roles which is necessary for team building as well as development. The roles of the team are given below:
Shaper: The people included in this category are focused towards the challenges in order to bring improvements among the employees working in the organisation. Such individuals change their tactics with the situations.
Implementer: These are the individuals who have the ability to convert idea into action in an effective manner.
Finisher: They are Anxious, painstaking people and like to complete tasks on time.
Coordinator: They have the ability to clarify goals to team members and manage work in define manner.
Team worker: People covered in this segment are those who develop teams and focuses on maintaining effective relationship with them (Davies, 2016).
Resource Investigator: They are extrovert and can communicate with peoples easily.
Plant: they bring creativity and innovativeness in teams and solves difficult issues in a proper manner.
Evaluator: This comprises of the persons who evaluate others and then judge accurately.
Specialist: This people are specialised in some sectors and give knowledge to others.
Concepts & philosophies of Organisational behaviour along with a given situation
Concepts of Organisation Behaviour
Individual Difference: It is determined that every individual is different from others and works as per their thoughts and experience. It is important for Primark to develop positive mindset of staff members so that each employee works towards common goal rather than focusing on their thoughts and ideas.
Motivation: It is essential for Primark to satisfy the needs of employees as it motivates them to work with full potential towards organisational objective. In addition to this, the higher authorities of company give rewards, incentives as well as extra benefits in order to encourage and fulfil their needs (Dunphy, 2016). This assist company to increase performance as well as productivity of employees that leads to raise in sales and market performance of Primark.
Philosophies of Organisational Behaviour
There are various philosophies of Organisational behaviour which is mentioned below:
Custodial: This philosophy signifies that it is essential to give training and development sessions to employees before assigning tasks to them as this will help Primark to implement business activities in an effective manner.
Collegial: In this philosophy, all the staff members participate as well as work in proper coordination in order to achieve targets before deadline. According to this philosophy there is no manager and employees as there are only team members who work collectively to achieve targets. With reference to Primark, this will help company to motivate its employees that leads to raise in productivity and performance level of workforce which in turn increases profitability of Primark. Struggling with dissertation writing, get dissertation writing help from our experts!!
Autocratic: Herein, Higher authorities of Primark have the power to take decisions regarding goals of the company. They give guidelines and command to all the employees so that business activities is performed in a better manner.
Path-goal Theory: Path Goal theory emphasised on specifying leaders attitude and behaviour that is good for the employees in order to achieving the goal of the organisation (Eloquin, 2016). In the context of Primark, the manager emphasised on providing right direction to the employees of the company thus it helps in increasing the productivity and profitability of the company. This theory consists of four styles:-
Directive:-Herein, leaders provide direction to employees regarding implementation of business activities so that they can perform in a better manner. With reference to Primark, the management team of company guides all the staff members so that objectives can be attained within time frame.
Achievement :-In this type of style, leaders motivate the subordinate for achieving the goal and objective of the company. In the context of Primark, the management team focuses on providing challenges to the employees as well as observe them while they are performing tasks to achieve a common goal of the business organisation.
Participative:- Hereby, leaders give the opportunity to employees to take participation in decision making of the organisation (Hyypiä, Oikarinen and Parjanen, 2016). In the discourse to Primark, the high authority concentrate on taking suggestion of employees in decision making to build a good environment in the organisation.
Supportive: In this Style, leaders emphasised on the satisfactions of the need of the employees. In the context of Primark, the management team support the employees in fulfilling their task that motivate the employees to work in that organisation.
From the above study, it has been analysed that organisational behaviour plays vital role in the success of an association. The three factors that effect on the behaviour of teams as well as individual prevailing in an organisation are Culture, Politics as well as power. Leaders plays an essential role as they align teams and motivate them by maintaining effective relationship with all the staff members that help companies to achieve their desired goals within the given time period. The leaders adopt various theories such as Maslow's and Adam's Equity theory in order to encourage employees and increases their efficiency level. Tuckman Team development model assist an organisation to carry out task from initial to completion by the teams in an effective manner. In addition to this, acquisition of Path-goal Theory within the organisation assist leaders to accomplish desired objectives in an appropriate as well as effective manner.