The government of every nation always keeps a keen eye on the food, agricultural, and water need of the country as these are basic necessities that every person needs in daily life. with globalization and development of the infrastructures all over the world, every country faces problems related to water or foods scarcity in some parts of their respective nations. to cope with the future uncertainties and to meet current requirements policies are being framed by the government. In the present report a critical analysis of policy framed by the government of Punjab, India on agriculture is done along with its comparison with development goals of the United Nation.
1. Outlining Policy issues and desired Outcomes
Providing context for the policy –
Agriculture and livestock in Punjab contributes to 27% of total provision GDP of Punjab and account more than half in the national Gross domestic product. Most of the exports of Agricultural product is also form Punjab (Willer and Lernoud, 2016). The agriculture in Punjab contributes to two third of the food production of India and that is huge in itself. The total value addition of this section is only 20% and it employees more than 40% labor, so it can be seen that rate of labor in this sector of Punjab is significantly low and this is the main reason of high rate of poverty in agricultural sector of Punjab.
About 27 million acres of the land is fertile and irrigation area and with a diversifies natural resources and climatic condition , Punjab is source of different vegetation and farm products. 90% of the irrigation land is engaged in production of 5 crops only they are wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and maize the total factor productivity is also lower in this sector of Punjab it has been diminishing since 1980. The factors which are responsible for such decline are lack of new variety of seeds, resistance of pests and weeds for existing pesticides, obsolete and older methods of irrigation, decrease in health of soil and improper use of fertilizers.
The concept of food security has been developed with self-sufficiency in food grains. This is not just about food security rather it includes four components i.e. availability, accessibility, utilization and sustainability. The policy of 2017 provides a framework to catalyze growth by exploring potential of nature of Punjab and human resources.
The name of the policy is “ Punjab Agriculture Policy, 2017”. As the name suggest it is in context of agriculture development and sustainability. The policy is formed to be followed by all line departments and stakeholders. the vision behind formation of policy as stated by agricultural department is to transform this sector into diversified, sustainable, modern and market driven sector. This will be achieved through ICT empowerment, efficient utilization of the resources and restoring present practices.
In this policy preset two board way to achieves that targets they are i) institution of guiding principles and ii) cross cutting themes that are needed to be included in every effort and then initiatives will be taken. There are three major guiding principles in this policy
- Consideration of role of government in sectors which are market oriented;
- Training and strengthening the involvements of Punjab agricultural department
- To call for attention to establish links with various departments as well as with stakeholders.
Along with this focus is kept on yielding more productivity through better inputs, better functioning of the market and use of inputs that will enhance the productivity and yields a good price of the outputs (Snyder and et.al., 2014).
The vigilante effects of climatic changes and use of water, obligation in Punjab agricultures to reduce malnutrition and improvement of role of this section in reduction of poverty are major challenges faced by this sector in Punjab.
What does the agriculture department of the Indian government hope to achieve as a result of this policy-
The policy framers believes that this proposal will take agriculture of Punjab form a lower growth rate of 2.1% to a 5.1% sustainable growth. This is growth is anticipated on the basis of
- incremental profitability
- Framer-centric service delivery through ICT
2. Scientific basis of policy
Policy document and demonstration of a strong linkage between science and decision-making:
This statements means to say that do the policy adopts logics of actual prevailing situation in the agricultural sectors of the Punjab or it is just on paper and do not present any logics. With studying the policy of Punjab Agricultural department (PAD) it is seen that the decision and plans made in the policy are based on facts and figures on those sectors of Punjab. The fact which is defined in the policy are as the present growth rate of this sector is 2.1%. it contributes more than half of the GDP of Punjab. In GDP of agricultural sector on India have two third contributions from Punjab only. The decision making policy are also based on facts and logics and this can be proved with following:
The scientific basis of Agricultural policy, 2017 has been defied as guiding principles and cross cutting theme, some of them are:
- Guiding principles
- Role of government
- Capacity budgeting
- Linking collaboration of other departments and stakeholders
- Empowering women for inclusive growth and food security.
- Initiative taken to assist farmers.
- Agriculture extension services to provide knowledge and technical skills to farmers.
The strategy outlined in policy and its alignment with the best available related scientific information:
The policies and strategies for developments of agriculture are taken from Gopunjab. The fact is clearly mentioned in the policy that PDA need to work in affiliation with food fortification alliances and Punjab Pure food authority) (Nilsson, Griggs and Visbeck, 2016). Collaboration with Punjab Social protection Authority is also sought for development of innovation.
The subsidies provided for fertilizers amounts to 31500 million rupees and for providing interest free loan to farmers it amount to 5985 million rupees. With this it can stated that the policy is frames in basis of best available scientific figures and authentic information. The facts figures and all data taken for preparation of this policy is considered while taking into account the critical nature of this topic as the Punjab is highest productive state of India and also with highest rate of poverty in agricultural sector.
Scientific defense of policy and areas where the policy is strengthened or improved through greater adoption of scientific research results:
In the defense of the policy it can be said that is based on purely on facts and figures and no hypothetical data is being considered in this policy. The data available on the government sites of India and PAD is only considered while preparing this report. To strength this report facts from international authentic sites or organization working in this direction might have between taken into account (Costanza and et.al., 2016). This would have made the policy with an international growth approach. Along with this plans and training programs for authorizes related with this policy must have also been included in this policy as this will lead to make them understand the policy with a wider view as some of them do not possess high skills and knowledge about this sector.
3. Comparison of the policy with United Nations’ Sustainable Developments Goals
The sustainable development goal of the United nation in field of Agriculture is related with improvement of agricultural sector and its positive effect of the economy of the nation. The policy of Punjab Agricultural departments mainly focus on the agricultural sector of Punjab as this is the areas which contributes to half of the national gross domestic product so it is also considers the factor on development of economy of India.
The policy of UNSDG is vast in its scope as it focus in elimination of hunger, economic growth , agricultural development and sustainability. As per its report the hunger and malnutrition is still a major problems in some countries. The policy of PAD also includes the fact that most of the people in agricultural sector of Punjab suffers from malnutrition and also some of them do not have food to eat though they are thr one who produce them. Their production s purchased from them on lower rates and then either sold on hight rates or exported but this benefits never comes to them.
The aims SDG is to eliminate hunger and Malnutrition by 2030 around the world while this focus on this , PAD is keeping its focus on development of agriculture and its facility and this aim on SDG are a small part of their policy. This can be said that UN’s sustainable developments goals re for more than one nation and policy by PAD is for Only Punjab and that to for agricultural sector. with it can be interpreted that more of less the objective of both are same to develop conditions of farmers and enhance growth of agricultural sectors with ensuring sustainability. it is not wrong to say that both are on same path the difference is that the scope of SDG id very vast and of PAD is narrow.
4. Evaluating long term impacts of policy
Impacts on sustainability on implementation of Agricultural policy:
Effect of increasing globalization the successful implementation of this policy:
As mentioned in the beginning of the this report that policy is framed while taking into consideration the diverse climatic condition in Punjab and with such a huge access do various weather condition at Punjab is more suitable for production of various vegetation and crops, in Punjab 90% production of only 5 crops mainly wheat, rice, wheat, sugarcane and cotton. The policy maker wants to exploit and use the climatic condition of Punjab in production of various agricultural product but this can be hampered by increasing globalization.
As with increase in globalization climatic condition have been changed drastically and with melting of glaciers sea level have also increased this have lead to have negative impact on weather condition not only in India but on whole world as well. The effect of globalization can be huge if hampers the climatic condition of India (Paroda and et.al., 2018). the capital of India is facing its worst time as pollution is is very high in the city as is ranked up to2nd most polluted city in the world in year, 2017. The city of Punjab is not very far away form Delhi and if same enters Punjab the climatic condition will change to worse and policy implementation might remain on papers only.
The above factors can be considered as negative one as impact of globalization on Policy application one of thr most positive effects policy in a optimistic manner is access to latest technology and pesticide which is a drawback in agricultural sector of Punjab (Sustainable development Goals, 2018). The Punjab agricultural department can import technology and equipment and machinery that can be used to increase production and reducing the labor force and diverting them in other sector, this can have dual impact as increase in productivity and reduction in poverty in this sectors as labor from this sector can be diverted to another sector of the industry.
Impact of implementation of the selected policy on food security, use of energy, or the allocation and use of water resources:
The policy itself has a major objective of food security in it the food security will be enhance with application of present policy by PAD . The enhancement can be seen in form of availability, accessibility, utilization and sustainability of food products in Punjab.
The availability means after exporting major of the production it is availability of the population of India and especially to the people engaged in this sector. accessibility means to keep the process of the product low and make them cost efficient so that every person can purchase agricultural foods produces in India. with utilization manes optimal and equal distribution of food staples in all sectors at all levels of society. Sustainability mrans ti have it for present generation and to secure it for future generation as well. This can be done with importing high quality seeds form other developed countries and with this sustainability can also be ensured in this sector.
5. Outlining proposed changes
The policy framed by Punjab agricultural department is quite sufficient in it as it considered all the factors and issues that are needed to be addressed to increase the capacity and for developments and growth of agricultural sectors of Punjab (Baral, 2016). But there are certain facts or it can be sais as issue which might as well be included in the policy which would have made it more significant and precise without leaving and fact related with agriculture sectors of Punjab.
Changing mission raising capacity: some of the areas might need improvement in regards with capacity. A raise in analytical capacity in PAD with external specialist is also needed. This can increase the knowledge and skills of personnel in PAD and this can be very helpful for them inaccurately implementing the policy and exactly evaluate the situation and circumstances in relation to application of policy in various agricultural areas of Punjab. Get the best teaching assistant level 2 coursework help from experts. Order Now.
Making reforms more successful:
The policy mainly focuses on institution of new and latest technology and plans have been made in that director very vigilantly. But for removal of poverty task have been untaken with some limitations. As far as labor is concerned policy introduction says a lot about its reduction but nothing major is mention in the policy. So in opinion the this project maker it is more advisable that certain programs and be launched for their education and to increased their per capita income so that they can lead as happy life.
The programs can be launched for:
- Provide education to farmers and make facilities to educate their coming generation.
- To start a training program to make them aware of the benefits of new technology, equipment, and machinery in agriculture and encourage them to use the same.
- To give them training in how to use and implement the this mentioned above point.
- To initiate schemes that can give them funds to invest in their agricultural and farming business to purchase machinery and equipment
From the above report it can be concluded that the policy by Punjab Agricultural departments is for enhancing the condition of the farmers and agricultural sector within the Punjab. It is highest contributor in GDP and exports on farm product yet the condition of this sector in not good. Further it can be articulated that policy is made while taking into consideration actual fact, figures and prevailing conditions, so is actually applicable and thus, possess scientific logics. Next, it is interpreted that globalization might have both positive and negative impact in implication of this policy. Lastly , it is concluded that with certain amendments in policy it can be have a approach as of SDG by Unit