Introduction to Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior is the field of study in which the company can analyze the behavior and attitude of employees in different business situations. The present study has been made on Vodafone which is a British multinational telecommunication company operating business in London. Thus, in such context different structural and cultural aspects have been defined along with the impact of these facets on performance of business. Furthermore, the research study has also included the need of different leadership style for the business managers. Along with this description, organizational theories are also discussed which strengthens the practice of management. The concept of motivation is also emphasized in the subsequent study which managers are using to encourage employees for better productivity.
1.1 Basic forms of organizational structure and culture
Organizational structure is the way through which Vodafone is able to delegate roles and responsibilities to all the employees in adequate manner and the structural aspects also defines communication level between the employees. The categories of organizational structure have been stated in the below section:
All the job roles are divided among employees as per different departments and functions. This is also essential in making the things clear within workforce. Each portion of the organization is grouped according to its purpose.
Product based structure
In a product based structure, the firm is organized around specific products and each product group contains all the traditional departments such as finance, marketing, HRM and so on.
It is the one of several organizational designs. This structure brings employees together in a geographical division; however other divisional structures are based on product, services and customers.
On the other hand, organizational culture is the value and beliefs that employees follow while delegating and managing things. This is also another criteria in which businesses can define its shared values and rituals that govern people. Categories of culture have been stated in the below mentioned section:
- Power: For a Power Culture, it is essential for the firm to each aspect and decisions are made by one or a small number of people.
- Role: This is particularly useful for specialist roles e.g. sales, marketing, project management and legal compliance.
- Task: Task culture refers to the use of teams to complete tasks especially if the task/objective has a number of steps.
- Person: Person cultures are found in organizations where there is an opportunity for employees to develop their career and skills.
Concluding the structural aspect of Vodafone, it can be said that it assists the employers to maintain disciplinary aspects in the business which further helps in reaching towards organizational goals. This is the result of flat organizational culture. On the other hand, Vodafone is following role culture where in the major focus is given to proper delegation of roles and responsibilities. Contrary to this, British Airways has been following matrix structure where in duties are delegated as per the specifications of employees. In terms of cultural aspects, British Airways has been following task culture where in focus has been given towards accomplishment of all the tasks and projects.
1.2 Relationship of structure and culture
Organization structure and culture both have direct relationship with each other and both directly impacts business performance in diversified aspects. Through structure, employees can set the boundaries through which they can communicate with other departments. This affects cultural values of the business and restraints the employees for direct communication. For instance- organizational values and beliefs can be protected if all the employees put equal efforts for the same aspect. This can depict significant relationship between cultural and structural aspects.
Looking towards the organizational scenario of Vodafone, it can be said that structure does not allow the employees to present their views and opinion in decision making process; thus this has a direct impact on the cultural values. This leads to communication gaps and as a consequence, it impacts sustainability of the business. Contrary to this, British Airways have been allowing all the employees to participate in organizational sessions which generates positive environment at the workplace. This probably aids the employees to put more efforts in enhancing organizational performance.
1.3 What individual behavioral factors affect employees at work
Environment plays a crucial role in changing the behavior and attitude of employees at workplace as it facilitates effective coordination and direction. At Vodafone, individual behavior changes due to different work environment and this probably also hampers organizational performance.
Changes in team structure
Changes in team structure influences employee behavior which has a direct impact on the performance level of employees. It has been analyzed at British Airways that employees get demotivated when they shift to other teams and this happens because they do not want changes in the job roles.
Changes in policies and strategies
At British Airways and Vodafone both, mangers have articulated that individual behavior gets changed where organizational policies are changed and altered. This particular aspect has a direct impact on performance level.
Leadership influences individual behavior at workplace as this factor changes their behavior to positive and negative aspects. The leader needs to adopt suitable style of leadership so that followers can behave positively.
Communication level is one such aspect that helps the employees to transfer information from one place to another. Behavior of people changes when things are not properly communicated to them especially in the team. This generates negativity in the team and affects overall team performance.
Family and personal issues
It is an apparent fact that, behavior of employee affects at the time when he or she is facing issues in personal life. Personal life creates issues in work life management as well; thus it directly hampers productivity of work.
Furthermore, it is essential for the manager to to comprehend all those forces that affects individual behavior at workplace because managers have to get the things done by the employees; therefore changes in employee behavior could affect overall productivity of the organization. Managers have to keep idea about all those factors that affects and encourages motivation of employees because that is concerned with overall business performance. In the current study, manager at Vodafone has been paying attention towards all the aspects that affects individual behavior at workplace. In respect to this, the manager has also explored that organizational culture is one such aspect that probably influences employees to behave in different manner.
Manager of Vodafone must have to consider those forces that affects task's performance and which have direct influence on employee behavior. It is essential for the manager to identify those forces that are concerned with the performance of employees.
The manager of Vodafone must analyze loyalty aspects in the employees as how much they are loyal to the company. Meanwhile, it is also essential for manager to identify those forces that affects loyalty of employees for the business entity.
It is the duty of manager to ascertain what forces affects punctuality of employees so that such issue can be properly managed. Furthermore, every manager should promote punctuality in the business so that discipline can be maintained.
2.1 Compare leadership styles of two manager and state difference between both
Leadership is the aspect through which work can be performed through others and this is also another way of managing organizational practices and processes.
The leader of Vodafone has adopted the Autocratic Leadership style in which employees are authorized to consider the directions which are given by the leader. Flow of authority and command is managed in the centralized manner. The leader believes the style to be adequate and helps him to manage disciplinary aspects in an adequate manner. As per the leader's viewpoint, the style is more suitable than to Participative leadership because of the clear and direct command over authority. Being one of the largest entities, the leader of Vodafone is satiated with the adopted style.
Furthermore, the leader of British Airways has adopted Democratic style where in all the employees have the authority to present their views in the decision making process. This is yet another way of facilitating creativity and innovation at the workplace. It has been observed that leader of British Airways has been satiating the employees by providing them with authorities and responsibilities in decision making process. According to the views of British Airway's leader, the style is suitable for the business entity as compared to autocratic style as somewhere through this subsequent leadership style, motivational level of all the employees are maintained.
Both the styles are effective according to different business situations as both are effective in terms of managing work processes properly. However, both the leaders have to make sure that employees are able to meet organizational goals as per the directions determined by the leaders.
2.2 Explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management
From many research studies, it is articulated that, Organizational theory has been developed with the aim to interpret the structure of organizations. Several researchers have argued that organizational theory believes in having a close co-operation between management and employees. All of the theories in this realm are commonly categorized into several categories which are discussed in the below mentioned section:
Socio technical approach
Social technical theory is also termed as modern approach where in organization mainly focuses on developing team coordination and for that structural and cultural aspects are managed accordingly. Firms that operate business on larger scale usually adopt such theory; hence Vodafone has been using the same approach for so long. Furthermore, the business entity is also able to conduct all the processes in effectual manner.
Classical theory emphasizes on accelerating organizational productivity and the theory is also useful in encouraging organizational cultural aspects. It has been observed that British Airways has adopted this subsequent theory so as to develop team building aspects. All such efforts helps the airlines to build prominent level of coordination at the workplace.
Neo classical theory
The neoclassical theory was an attempt to incorporate the behavioral science into management thought in order to solve the problems caused by classical theory practices. There are two main sources in this theory such as the human relations approach and the behavioral movement.
Henry Fayol's 14 principles
As per the theory, managers must emphasize on specifications of each and every employee so that duties and tasks can be delegated accordingly. The chief focus is given towards all the principles of management that needs to be applied in the workplace so that every practice can be properly managed.
It lays emphasis on authority structure and description of organization and the system also treats the organization as a closed system. It is based on practicing; thus it increases experience of managers in several grounds. Further, emphasis is being given on economic efficiency and formal structure.
We tend to help at every step regarding to Assignment for getting on track...
We tend to help at every step regarding to Assignment for getting on track...
2.3 Specify link of management theories with organizational practices
The systems approach
Such type of approach is generally so as to analyze the behavior of individual and groups in an organization. This approach is basically focused on social aspects. Organizations needs to develop proper relationships with the society so that business can survive for longer period.
Scientific management approach
Scientific Management is mainly adopted so as to increase productivity by increasing efficiency and wages of the workers. Through this, employee capability can be encouraged so that they can perform in adequate manner. As apparent the approach of scientific management comprises of several principles; thus Vodafone can manage service delivery aspects properly.
The approach highly focuses on maintaining relationships with the employees as well as with the customers. This is prominent for the business entities because it aids in developing coordination among people working for same purpose.
Team management is the best aspect that can be facilitated through the application of such approach. This is also suitable in terms of enhancing the productivity of the organizational members with disciplinary actions. This theory has been applied at British Airways; thus for such purpose, the business entity is able to facilitate team bonding in adequate way.
These management theories have been assisting the organizations to plan and schedule all the work aspects in adequate manner. It has been observed that Vodafone's practices are getting underpinned by application of these theories.
3.1 Impact of leadership styles on motivation in the organization during the period of change
It has been observed that at the time when organization implements change in the business activity, managers and leaders have ensure that employees are motivated and encouraged enough to cope with the changes. Leadership styles have a direct impact on motivation of employees; however to comprehend the same aspect, interrelationship of employee motivation and leadership has been presented here. It is the duty of leader to motivate employees at the time of change management and both the managers have to adequately perform their duties in this domain. However there might be some aspects that could affect people from leadership styles which are also pointed out briefly in the below section:
It has been observed that leader of Vodafone is using autocratic leadership styles in which employees are not allowed to raise their opinion in the decision making process. This aspect sometimes hamper the interest level of employees and due to non availability of authorities and power, they get demotivated. At the time of change management, employees should get the opportunity to raise their advice in execution process so that certain sorts of modifications can be facilitated.
On the other hand, leader of British Airways has been using democratic style which helps the business to acquire many benefits. The workforce are also motivated enough due to proper delegation of duties. Thus, the leader generally does not face any sort of problem related to employee support at the time of change management.
3.2 Compare how managers can motivate employees
In order to motivate the employees, managers of both the cited organizations have been following different theories which helps the managers to encourage the employees for better productivity. The different theories are mentioned in the below section:
The manager of Vodafone has adopted Maslow's need hierarchy theory which focuses on different needs of the employees in hierarchical order. The theory works on the principle that as the person is contended with one need, he moves on to the other need. Hence, it aids the manager of Vodafone to meet each and every need of the employees. Thus, it can be said that in order to motivate an employee, it is important for the managers to comprehend that at which stage the person is lying in the hierarchy so that the managers and leaders can address their needs efficiently. The needs can be categorized as per the level of motivation and this also assists the managers to find out employee retention aspects.
The manager has been using Herzberg two factors and through this, each and every need of employee is considered and is fulfilled by the organization. This theory is also known as two factors theory. According to this, there are some factors in the workplace which causes job satisfaction. However, on the other hand, there are also some factors which results in dissatisfaction among the employees. The subsequent airline has been emphasizing on these factors mentioned in the subsequent theory and this further aids the business to facilitate suitable atmosphere at workplace. Employees are able to derive rewards and recognition from the management which is yet another source of managing employee encouragement.
3.3 Usefulness of motivational theory to each of the managers
The motivational theories are helpful for the managers of Vodafone and British Airways as that allows the managers to encourage workforce for longer span. The usefulness of motivational theories are mentioned in the below mentioned section:
The manager of Vodafone has been managing employee interest with the help of Maslow's need hierarchy theory where in motivational aspect of employee at each and every level is identified in clear terms. With the help of different needs of employees, Vodafone is able to drive the employees towards productivity which improves the overall efficacy of the business entity.
The theory is useful for the managers since through that managers are able to identify those aspects that affects employee encouragement level in the business processes. Issues related to employee dissatisfaction and discouragement are fewer at the airlines because all the concerned factors are explored in appropriate manner. Manager of BA has been imparting training facilities to the employees so that they can raise their capability level. Hence, application of all such aspects ensures that employee interest is considered in every process of the organization.
From the entire research, it is articulated that organizational behavior is a concept that includes various aspects such as motivation, organizational structure and culture, team work and groups. Organizational behavior and culture is depicted in the personality of a corporation and attitude of employees towards their working. The study has depicted that structural and cultural aspects of Vodafone and British Airways both have direct relationship with each other and probably impacts business practices in diversified manner.
- Ahmad, K., 2009. Leadership and work motivation from the cross cultural perspective. International Journal of Commerce and Management.
- Baligh, H. H., 2006. Organization Structure. Springer.
- Castro, B. C., Armario, M. E. and Ruiz, M. D., 2004. The influence of employee organizational citizenship behavior on customer loyalty. International Journal of Service Industry Management.
- Daft, 2009. Organization Theory and Design, 10th Ed. Cengage Learning.
- Griffin, R.W. and Moorhead, G., 2009. Organization Behavior, 9th Ed. Cengage Learning.