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Business Administration

University: Bedford College

  • Unit No: 9
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 15 / Words 3633
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 10325
Question :

This sample will guide you through

  • Introduction of Business Administration
  • Different types of business presentation
  • Characteristics of bespoke documents
  • Typical stages of information system
Answer :
Organization Selected : N/A


Business administration can be defined as a the process of analysing performance of an organisation and its operations. It guides the managers to form strategic decisions that can help to form strategic decisions in order to strengthen organisational position. For all the companies it is very important to administer all its executional activities so that it can be assured that all of them are running smoothly or not (Albăstroiu, Felea and Vasiliu, 2014). In this project report various topics are discussed such as negotiation and its importance, uses, features, components etc., different types of presentations, their requirements, resources required, methods, practices and the way in which feedback is collected and used for presentation. Bespoke document, its characteristics, legal requirements, techniques, way to get approval, information system, its typical stages, benefits, limitations, legal, security requirements and its effectiveness are also been covered under this assignment.

1.1 Importance of negotiation in a business environment

Negotiation: It can be defined as the process in which people settle differences. Compromises or an agreement reaches to an extent by avoiding arguments and disputes with the help of negotiation. It is very important for the business environment and all the importances are as follows:

  • Negotiation helps to establish good relations and guide to avoid possible future conflicts.
  • It is important for the business as it helps to find such deals where two parties under negotiation get benefits (Aschemann Witzel and Niebuhr Aagaard, 2014).
  • For an organization it is very important to keep the operational activities going on and on by attaining higher profits for the company.

1.2 Features and uses of different approaches to negotiation

There are three different types of approaches of negotiation (Negotiation approaches, 2018). All of them with their features and uses are explained in following table:




Compromise approach

This approach is used to make improvements in lose lose approach so that both the parties may take advantage.

It is the best way for the parties when it is impossible for both of them to convince each other and resources for contravention are constricted.

Integrative negotiation or win win approach

It is the best approach from all the other approaches because it results in positive response of both the parties as they feel that they are achieving what they want.

In this type of negotiation there are sufficient resources that can be distributed among both the parties. It includes cooperation, mutual problem solving and sharing information.

Distributive negotiation or win lose approach

This approach is used to gain advantages with the help of manipulative actions, misleading and concealing information.

In this approach fixed resources are divided so that one party gets more and other gets less.

1.3 Components of negotiation tactics

Negotiation tactics: These are the qualities that are used by negotiator to with a negotiation and gain advantage. Basically these are deceptive and manipulative which is utilised by parties to achieve goals and objectives. There are various types of components of negotiation tactics. All of them are described below in detail:

  • Preparation: For every negotiator it is very important to be prepare to communicate in a negotiation. It is very important to keep each and every element that may help to win the argument (Cuccurullo, Aria and Sarto, 2016).
  • Exchanging information: In a negotiation it is very important for both the parties to exchange appropriate information so that all the resources can be divided equally to both of them. It is essential for the negotiators to share all the relevant content to each other in order to finish the process successfully.
  • Bargaining: This is one of the major component of negotiation tactic because without bargaining it is not possible to win it.

All the above described components are required to win and successfully complete a negotiation.

2.1 Different types of presentation and their requirements

Presentation: It the process of defining or presenting a particular topics in front of an audience. In various organisation it is used to motivate individuals, inform them about a new scheme and present a new idea in front of a group (Types of presentations, 2019). There are various types of presentations. All of them and their requirements are described below:




It is the most common type of presentation which is mainly required to present research and thesis written by an individual. All type of relevant data, findings of a group etc. are recorded in it.


In such type of presentation all the information is recorded in steps. It is required to guide the audience to complete a task in easy form by following some guidelines.


In such type of presentation speaker tries to convince the audience to accept their point of view on a particular point. It is required to discuss the problems and then talk about the ways in which all of them can be resolved.


This type of presentations are required to uplift or inspire the audience. The speaker tries to motivate the group with the help of good communication skills.

2.2 Uses of different resources to develop a presentation

For all the successful presentations various resources are required that helps to make it more attractive and developed. All the resources and their uses are as follows:

Software packages: It is an important resource which may help to develop the presentation in an impressive manner. These are used to put graphs, charts, tables, images and other elements into it (Farmer, 2015).

Speaker's notes: It is very important to keep the presentation simple and put less content on the slides. Speaker's notes are used to add matter in notes which is related to the slide.

Audience's hand outs: These are the hard copy of presentations which is provided to the audience in order to get their feed back and render them additional information. It is very beneficial as it helps to identify weaknesses and guide to resolve them next time.

Boards and flip charts: These are the best tools that can be used to interact with audience. It is used to get immediate feed back of the group in order to analyse that presentation is good or not (Forsgren and Johanson, 2014).

2.3 Different methods of giving presentations

All the speakers always try to make their presentations which is not forgettable. For this purpose various methods can be used. All of them are as follows:

  • Very formal: This method is mainly used for big conferences in which information is provided to large number of people. At last a formal question and answer round is conducted in such types of methods in order to resolve queries of audiences.
  • Formal: In this method a small conference in conducted in which the speaker is not known to the audience. It is held in a meeting room and at the end of it questions are asked by presenter in which interruptions can be faced.
  • Informal: This method is used to provide information, get instant reaction and respond and discussion over a common topic. The presentation is conducted for a small group in which some of the members are known and others are unknown to the speaker.
  • Very informal: In this method small meetings are conducted in which all the members are known to each other. It is mainly used for informal meeting such as friend's get together.

2.4 Best practice in delivering presentations

For all speakers it is very important to give impressive presentation which is possible with the help of best practices. All of them are as follows:

  • Practice: It is very important for the speakers to practice about the presentation on a black stage. It is very beneficial for reducing hesitation, nervousness and fear of stage (Freel, 2016).
  • Asserting : To be an effective speaker it is very important to be assertive not aggressive. The things that matters to it are posture and presence. The presenters needs to assure that they are in a good attitude and have confidence to present themselves in front of the audience.
  • Contact with the audience: It is very important to interact with audience and get their response on presentation. For this purpose the speaker needs to make eye contract, have appropriate gesture and a good language.
  • Effective use of voice: While giving a presentation the speakers needs to use voice effectively because it grabs attention of audience and make them aware of the topic. It is very important to keep the pitch stable in order to interact with listeners (Grusec and Hastings, 2014).

2.5 Explanation of the way in which feedback is collected and used on a presentation

For all the speakers to it is very important to collect feedback from the listeners in order to make improvements and modifications in presentation. It can be collected by directly interacting with group, conducting a question and answer round, providing speaker's notes to the audience etc. It is very beneficial for the presenter as it may help to make appropriate changes to the matter.

Speaker may directly ask the listeners to provide their feedback on presentation and if they find any mistake then they may pass their judgement. In question and answer round the presentation may get to know that it was effective or not. All the comments marked by the group can guide to modify it and help to ignore previous mistakes.

3.1 Characteristics of bespoke documents

Bespoke document: It is document which is used by organisations to present its professional picture. These are also considered as the brand image of the company. They can be used easily and best suited for organisational purpose. There are various characteristics of bespoke that are as follows:

  • These documents are the clear picture of an organisation in which the professional may find appropriate data which is required by them.
  • It helps to retain existing and attract potential customers towards the company as it render all relevant data to them (Holsapple, Lee-Post and Pakath, 2014).
  • Bespoke document is very helpful while trying to maintain reputation of the business that may help to achieve objectives and reach goals.

3.2 Factors to be taken in to account in creating and presenting bespoke documents

For all the organisations it is very important to create and present bespoke document as it helps to present a professional image. It can help the customers and interested stakeholders to get detailed content regarding the company in order to form strategic decisions. There are various factors that are required to be take in consideration while creating and presenting bespoke. All the elements are described below:

  • Available resources: For all business entities to analyse available resources while creating this document because it is very important to add their information in them. It helps to look at the costs that are spent by the company on staff members.
  • Ease of use: This factor is required to be considered at the time of presenting the bespoke as it helps to figure out the layouts and styles that are used by speaker are relevant or not. For organisations it can be used to analyse that the information which is added to the document is understandable by the user or not.
  • Corporate factors: This factor focuses on brand of business and those elements that may leave negative or positive impact on the image. All of them guides to form strategic decisions to reduce impact of future consequences (Inman, 2016).

3.3 Legal requirements and procedures for gathering information for bespoke documents

For all the individuals it is very important to follow legal procedures and requirements while formulating bespoke document as it may help to make sure that it is formed in appropriate manner or not. Legal regulations are as follows:

Data protection act: According to this organisations and legal bodies should use personal data of customers appropriately that does not affect their life and not harmful. While gathering information for bespoke the individuals should make sure that the content will not be used illegally.

Patent and copyright designs act: This act guides the researchers looking for information not to use copyrighted information. If in some conditions it is used then add source rather then considering it as their own research. If it is not followed then strict actions can be taken by the government.

Process of gathering information for bespoke includes only one elements that the data should be relevant, accurate and actual. It is also very important to make sure that it is collected under legal requirements or not.

3.4 Techniques to create bespoke business documents

Bespoke is a business document that reflects a professed image of a company. There are various techniques that are used to form it. All of them are as follows:

Traditional method: In this method bespoke is created with the help of old methods. Sometimes it is not possible for the organisations to present an appropriate bespoke with the help of this method as it may result in errors and mistakes.

Modern method: In this method updated version of software is used to create bespoke. It helps to make it attractive and impressive. This technique assures the accuracy of information recorded in documents (Julien, 2018).

3.5 Approval of bespoke documents

It is the last stage of bespoke formulation process in which all the documents are presented in front of top management in order to get their feedback. If any mistake is figured out by them then they ask for modifications so that it can become perfect. When improvements are made by the presenter then again it is showed to the seniors for approval. They analyse that required changes are done or not. If they find that it is impressive and appropriate then approval is marked by them. While trying to get approval the seniors assess the proof leading, editing, feedback collecting and consultation skills of the presenter.

4.1 Typical stages of information system

Information system: It can be defined as the set of software which is used by organisation to organise, analyse and control organisational data. It helps to find best solutions for the problems by evaluating it in detail. There are various typical stages of it that are as follows:

Analysis: In this stage individuals needs to analyse that the information which is gathered is appropriate or not.

Development: This is second typical stage of information in which the place where development is needed is assessed.

Implementation: After developing the area system is implemented in the organisation.

Evaluation: This is the last stage of information system in which individuals evaluate success of failure (Real, Roldán and Leal, 2014).

All the above described points are typical stages of information system followed by organisations.

4.2 Analysis of benefits and limitations of different information system

There are various types of information system. All of them with their benefits and limitations are described below:

Information system



Management information system

It is very beneficial for the organisations as it helps to achieve higher level of efficient and improve decisions making ability of managers by providing them appropriate and reliable data.

To implement this system technical knowledge is required for this purpose organisations needs to spend money on training of the employees.

Decision support system

DSS helps to form strategic decisions and find appropriate solutions for organisational problems.

In this system it is not possible to collect all the required information.

4.3 Legal, security and confidentiality requirements for information systems in a business environment

For all the organisations it is very important to follow the legal requirements that are imposed by the government on information systems. All the regulations are described below:

Freedom of information act, 2000: This act creates a public right of access on social information. According to this act everyone is free to use and implement such data which declared free by the public authorities (Urwick, 2018).

Copy design and patent act, 1988: According to this act if any organisation is using public information then it should not declare that data was founded by it self as it is copyrighted by some other companies.

Both the above described regulations are required to be followed by all the organisations to use information whether it is public or private.

4.4 Use and effectiveness of an information system

Use of information system: There are various types of information system that are used for different purposes. For example, management information system is used to summarise and analyse computerised data which is utilised by managers of the company. DSS is used to support decisions making process of managers and also guides them to render appropriate judgements upon organisational issues and problems (Toth and Vigo, 2014).

Effectiveness of information system: It is very beneficial and effective for business entities as it may help to find best solutions for business issues. Decision support system is very effective for all the companies because it guides the managers to find best solutions for business issues. It helps to improve productivity and operational efficiency of the organisation.

In most of the organisations technology acceptance model is used to monitor the uses and effectiveness of information system. It helps the managers to analyse all the benefits and drawbacks of the system and facilitates while formulating decisions regarding implementation of the new model within an organisation.


From the above project report it has been concluded that business administration is the process of analysing all the operational and executing activities of the organisation so that all the objectives can be achieved. Negotiation is the process of discussing on a same topic and then distribute available resources to both the parties. Various types of methods are used by individuals to give presentations these are informative, descriptive, persuasive etc. Bespoke document is also used by organisations to present professional image of the company. For all the business entities it is very important to have an appropriate information system in order to be updated about market trends.


  • Albăstroiu, I., Felea, M. and Vasiliu, C., 2014. Geographic information system-modern teaching method in business administration. Amfiteatru Economic Journal. 16(37). pp.770-783.
  • AschemannWitzel, J. and Niebuhr Aagaard, E. M., 2014. Elaborating on the attitude–behaviour gap regarding organic products: young D anish consumers and instore food choice.International Journal of Consumer Studies. 38(5). pp.550-558.
  • Cuccurullo, C., Aria, M. and Sarto, F., 2016. Foundations and trends in performance management. A twenty-five years bibliometric analysis in business and public administration domains.Scientometrics. 108(2). pp.595-611.
  • Farmer, D. J., 2015.Public administration in perspective: Theory and practice through multiple lenses. Routledge.
  • Forsgren, M. and Johanson, J., 2014.Managing networks in international business. Routledge.
  • Freel, M., 2016.Knowledge-intensive business services: geography and innovation. Routledge.
  • Grusec, J. E. and Hastings, P. D. eds., 2014.Handbook of socialization: Theory and research. Guilford Publications.
  • Holsapple, C., Lee-Post, A. and Pakath, R., 2014. A unified foundation for business analytics.Decision Support Systems. 64.pp.130-141.
  • Inman, K., 2016.Women's resources in business start-up: A study of black and white women entrepreneurs. Routledge.

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