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Human Resource Development

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Issues of Human Resource Development

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Introduction

Tesco is a leading retailer in UK into terms of revenue and size. In order to understand various issues of human resource development this report is prepared. In the report, various learning styles are described. Along with this their contribution to drafting of training and development program is also described in detail. In middle part of report training program is designed. Moreover, techniques that can be used to evaluate a training program are also discussed in detail. Governments are also playing a very important role in improving skills of the youngsters. In regard to this detail discussion is carried out in the report. At the end of the report, steps taken by the UK government in respect to this are discussed in detail.

TASK 1

1.1 Comparison of different learning styles

Learning style refers to the way in which an individual learns from the various events occurred in his or her life. Some of the common learning styles are as follows.

Activist-It is a learning style in which an individual learns by performing tasks or activities. In this case, an individual performs some new things and he or she does not have any experience of that task. During the performance of task, that individual faces lot of challenges and he or she tries to find out ways to handle challenges and achieve objectives. During this entire process, individual learns lot of things.

Reflector- In this learning style, an individual gains experience before performing any kind of task. Such kind of individual believes that some information is necessary to be collected regarding the performance before conducting that task (Hurn, 2011). By doing this, new task can be performed in an efficient and effective manner. Tesco can implement this learning style by introducing seminars, learning activities and presentations at its workplace.

Theorists- In this kind of learning style, an individual learns by analyzing a situation. In an organization, situations are too complex and by evaluating entire situation learner arrives at particular conclusion. He or she uses that conclusion for formulating strategies that can be used to deal with complex situation (Pennanen, Whelton and Ballard, 2005).

Pragmatist- In this learning style a person learns by solving specific issues. Managers face new issues in day to day business operations and they need to solve these issues as soon as possible. In order to solve these issues, manager considers several factors and correlates all those factors with each other. By doing this, an individual learns many new things.

All the learning styles are effective at workplace. Tesco as per its needs must determine a learning style in which individuals must learn new things in an organization. In this regard, it can use various methods like seminars and group discussion in order to implement specific learning style at the workplace.

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1.2 Importance of learning curve and importance of transferring learning to workplace

Learning curve is a curve that shows that if any task is performed repeatedly then time taken by an employee to perform that task can be increased or decreased. If activity is performed again and again by an employee, so he or she becomes perfect in performing that task. Hence, he or she takes less time to complete that task. If, time taken by employee to perform task is not reduced after conducting that task at so many times, then it can be said that employee does not gain any experience from the activity that he is performing again and again from so many days. By using learning curve, such kind of employee can be identified that are not gaining required experience from the repeat performance of task (Ryan, Spencer and Bernhard, 2012). Management of Tesco needs to carry out a session in which reasons due to which an employee is not able to learn will be identified. On this basis, changes can be made in the training program. By doing this, training program can be made effective. Hence, in this way learning curve as a technique plays an important role in refining the training program of Tesco. There is a great importance of transferring learning to the workplace. An individual while working at the workplace faces many situations and he or she learns a lot from these scenarios. In order to deal with such situations in future, he or she formulates different types of tactics through dealing such situations in the present (Storey, 2014). If learning is transferred properly at workplace then he or she will easily solve complex issues in their job. Thus, there is a huge importance of transferring learning to the workplace.

1.3 Contribution of learning styles and theories on planning and designing of training event

Training is given to the employees who fall in specific category like managers, employees and workers. Due to this reason some special learning styles are associated with the training event. For example if training event is organized for managers then theorist and pragmatist learning style will be suitable for them. This is because both are related to evaluation of situation and focus on finding better solution through correlating various factors. On other hand, activist and reflector do not deal with various kinds of factors. So, if training will be given on the basis of activist and reflector learning style then training program will not be prepared in a proper manner (Fan, 2009). But if training program is prepared on theorist and pragmatist learning style, then it will be effective and conducted in a perfect direction. Hence, learning style greatly influences mangers in planning and designing of training event. In same way, there are many learning theories like behaviorism, cognitive and constructive. These theories state about the different ways of learning. Manager needs to select an appropriate learning theory at the time of preparing a learning program. All these theories are perfect at their own place. But, manager has to identify best learning theory for conducting an effective training program (Haskell, 2001). Selection of relevant learning theory for the training makes learning program very effective. Hence, learning theory plays a significant role in the success of a training program.

TASK 2

2.1 Training needs of different level of management

There are three levels of management namely top, middle and lower level management. Work of each level of management is entirely different from each other. Due to this reason, training needs of each level of management is also different from each other. Individuals who work at top level management formulate strategies and business policies. On other hand, middle level management is focused on performing administrative tasks assigned by top level management (Armitage, 2012). On other hand, lower level employees perform basic business related activities at the ground level. So, on the basis of comparison it can be seen that activities performed by the different level of management vary in nature and due to this reason; training needs of each level are also different from each other. Top managers need training programs in strategy formulation. On other hand, middle level managers need training in strategy implementation at the ground level. Hence, it can be said that training needs of each level of management are fulfilled by using different methods. Due to these same training programs cannot be prepared for all level of management.

2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of training methods

There are various training methods of training and these have some advantages and disadvantages. Plus and negative points of these training methods are described below.

Job rotation- Under these technique time to time employees is rotated on various jobs. The main benefit that an organization gets by doing so is that it can use employee for performing any job in an organization. Means that employee's can be utilized flexibly by the firm. Due to frequent rotation on jobs employee does not become perfect in performing a single job (Boström and Lassen, 2006). Due to this reason they do not get efficient in performing a single job. As a result, firm cannot make best possible use of its labor force. This is major limitation of this technique.

Coaching- This method is widely used in the firms for training new employee's at the workplace.  The main benefit of using this method is that if trainee has any confusion he can immediately ask his doubt to trainer. The main limitation of this method is that if communication skills of trainer are weak then he cannot comprehend concepts to the trainees. Hence, entire training efforts may go waste. Thus, it can be said that this method has both advantages and limitations.

Lectures- In this method an intellectually high person deliver a speech to the trainees. Through this method trainees get a vast knowledge about contemporary issues in relation to specific field (Middleton and Baartman, 2013). The main limitation of this technique is that lecturer does not know that trainees have knowledge or not about topic on which he is deliver a lecture. If this happens then positive outcome will not come from lecturer program.

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2.3 Systematic approach to plan the training and development program

Training and development program in Tesco will be conducted in a following way.

Briefing by managers- In these first step managers will give briefing to the new comers. In briefing detail information will be provided about an organization. Moreover, detail information will be provided about career growth in an organization. In this way, new comers will be motivated to work hard for their career growth in an organization (Ghosh and et.al, 2011).

Training by trainers- After this training session will be commenced under which on various topics practical training will be given to the employee's. This session will be divided in to three parts and gap of half an hour will be given in each session. At the end of the session trainees will be given an opportunity to clear their doubts by asking questions to the trainers.

Revision round – After delivering lectures on all topics revision round will be started in which again all topics will be described in short (Pillay, Tones and Kelly, 2011). If any trainee will have doubt he will be given an opportunity to ask his query. In this training program will come to end.

TASK 3

3.1 Evaluation of training program

Following is the process of evaluating a training program.

Preparing a plan- Before starting a training program a plan will be prepared. As per this plan training program will be implemented by the managers operating at the middle level of management. In plan managers will prepare a standard which will be strictly followed in order to implement a training program.

Implementing a training program- In this stage a training program is implemented by the employee's at the workplace. Steps determined in plan are strictly followed in order to implement a training program (Simmonds, 2003). Moreover, managers also make sure that they are strictly following all standards while implementing a training program.

Evaluating a training program- In this step a training program is evaluated by the managers using standard. These standards are using as a method to appraise training program. After evaluating deviation are communicated to the top managers whether they are positive or negative.

Collection of feedback- In this step feedback is collected from employee's regarding their satisfaction from training program (Wilson, 2005). This is second method that is used for evaluating a training program. In this way, entire training program is implemented and evaluated by the business managers.

3.2 Carry out evaluation of an training event

Following are steps to carry out evaluation of training event.

Reaction- In this step data is collected from the employees regarding their satisfaction from the training program. By analyzing such data managers comes to know success or failure of the training program.

Learning- In this step HR manager takes an interview of the employees who were participating in the training program. During interview HR manager asks several questions to the employee's in order to identify extent to which they learn from training program.

Behavior- After conducting a training program employee's working behavior at the work place is identified (Lepi, 2012). Means that manager try to identify changes that comes in the employee's performance after the training program. After identifying changes a detail report is prepared and sends to the top management for further action.

Report from top management- On reviewing a report top managers identify that training program successfully achieve objective or not. If it failed to achieve objective then these managers made some recommendations which are followed in the next training program in order to make sure that mistakes committed in this training program will not repeated again (Boxall and Purcell,  2003).

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3.3 Success of the evaluation methods used for measuring success of training program

Standards- In above answer standards were determined to measure success of the training program. Standards were prepared in such a ways that does not create any confusion among trainers. Moreover limited standards were determined for evaluation. As a result, managers do not face any difficulty in evaluating a project. Hence, this evaluation technique was successfully used in measuring success of the training program (Claus, 2003).

Reaction- In order to ensure that training is evaluated in the proper manner management also makes an attempt to know the employee reaction on the training program. This technique was successfully used and response of employees tally with whatever data collected by the management by comparing actual performance with the standards.

Learning – By conducting interview managers comes to know about success or failure of the training program in accurate manner. Hence, this technique also proves very effective in measuring success of the training program.

Behavior- In this employee’s performance in terms of productivity and efficiency is measured (Leopold, Harris and Watson, 2005). By using this technique employees performance is accurately measured. Thus, it can be said that this evaluation method was effective in measuring success of the training program.

TASK 4

AC 4.1 Role of government in training and development

Training is concerned with improving the employees’ knowledge and their skills in order to increase their efficiency. Therefore, it is very important for every organization to conduct a proper training and development programmes to increase the workers performance. Government also plays a major role in providing training to the staff (Marrewijk and Timmers, 2003). Government organizes different programmes for this purpose. It includes industry training organizations (ITO), investors in people, Training and Local Enterprise Councils (TEC/LEC) and Business links (BL).

Industrial training organizations: These programmes are conducted by Minster of Education under the respective training act. In this programme, government set the required workers skills for different types of industries. After that, it addressed to the trainees and the employees. Thus, employees have full knowledge that which skills should be improved by them. The government arranges the off job training through providing training packages to the employers (Hughes, 2002). In addition, it also arranges the assessment of trainees and monitoring of quality training provided to the employees. Tesco plc organization also gets advantages from such programmes. The organization is able to conduct an effective training program at lower the cost through getting training packages. It ensures the enterprises to run its business operations for a long time period.

Training and local Enterprise council: In UK, training and local enterprise councils are also existed. They help the business organization in establishment and help them in achieving the business growth (Guest, 2001). The government also provides training and support to the businesses. Tesco plc is also get benefited from such councils by getting training and support assistance from the government. Moreover, the company is able to having a skilled and able workforce that helps in getting high revenues and profitability. It resulted in foster the economic growth and development through encouraging the investment.

AC 4.2 Development of competency movement on private and public sectors

Tesco plc is trying to diversify the available workforce to a right place and at the right time according to the workers skills. Competency movement is considered as the process of providing right job to right workers. It explains that work will be allocated according to the workers knowledge and their interests. Therefore, it becomes necessary for every organization to analyze the workers interest, choices, behavior, skills and their knowledge. If the individuals are not interest to do the allocated task then it creates a negative impact to the employees and the organization (Lyman and O’Brien, 2003). The employees can not improve its skills in an effective manner in such situation so this negatively impacts the company through less efficiency. Thus competency movement helps the Tesco plc to improve the organization performance. This in turn, resulted in increased revenues and adequate availability of profits to the company. It helps both private and public sector organizations.

4.3 Contemporary training initiatives introduced by UK government

In past year government of UK launched various training programs. These training programs are launched by the industry institutes. These programs are suitable for those who want to develop their skills in specific field. Apart from this, local training programs are also organized in small cities in order to give equal opportunity to every individual to improve his skills (Madsen, Mosakowski and Zaheer, 2003). Under these training programs government is also conducting seminars in which intellectual people deliver a lecture to the trainees. So, it can be said that government is making good efforts in order to develop skills of the youngsters. Hopefully, in upcoming years also government will not take more initiatives in this direction.

CONCLUSION

On the basis of above discussion it is concluded that employees are valuable resource of the company. Without them no organization can survive. Hence, an organization must always make an effort to develop its human resources efficiency and productivity level. In this regard firms must conduct training and development programs time to time. So, with passage of time efficiency and productivity of employees get increased. In order to make training program successful some standards must be determined. By using these standards effectiveness of the training program must be evaluated. Further, corrective actions must be implemented in order to make sure that same mistakes will not repeat again.

References

  • Armitage, A., 2012.Teaching and Training in Lifelong Learning. McGraw-Hill Education     (UK).
  • Boström, L. and Lassen, M. L., 2006. Unraveling learning, learning styles, learning strategies     and meta‐cognition. Education +Training. 48 (2/3). pp.178 – 189.
  • Boxall, P. and Purcell, J., 2003. Strategy and Human Resource Management. Basingstoke: Plagrave
  • Claus, L., 2003. Similarities and Differences in Human Resource Management in the European Union. Thunderbird International Business Review, 45: 729–756.
  • Fan, Q., 2009. Innovation for Development and the Role of Government: A Perspective from     the East Asia and Pacific Region. World Bank Publications.
  • Ghosh, P. and et.al., 2011. Evaluating effectiveness of a training programme with trainee     reaction. Industrial and Commercial training. 43(4).  pp.247 – 255.
  • Guest, D.E., 2001. Human Resource Management: When research confronts theory. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12: 1092–1106.
  • Haskell., E. R., 2001.Transfer of Learning: Cognition, Instruction, and Reasoning. Academic     Press.
  • Hughes, C., 2002. HRM and Universalism: Is there one best way? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality, 14: 221–228.
  • Hurn, J. B.,  2011. Simulation training methods to develop cultural awareness. Industrial and     Commercial training.  43(4).  pp.199 – 205.
  • Leopold, J., Harris, L. and Watson, T., 2005. (eds.) The Strategic Managing of Human Resources. Harlow: Prentice-Hall.
  • Lyman, R, and O’Brien, M., 2003. A History of Normative Theory in Americanist Archaeology. Organization Science. 14(2).pp. 137-148.
  • Madsen, T, Mosakowski, E, and Zaheer, S., 2003. Knowledge Retention and Personnel Mobility: The Nondisruptive Effects of Inflows of Experience. Organization Science. 14(2).pp. 173-191.
  • Marrewijk, M, and Timmers, J., 2003. Human Capital Management: New Possiblities in People Management. Journal of Business Ethics. 44(2/3).pp. 171-184.
  • Middleton, E. H. and  Baartman, J.K.L. 2013. Transfer, Transitions and Transformations of     Learning. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Pennanen, A., Whelton, M. and Ballard, G., 2005. Managing stakeholder expectations in     facility management using workplace planning and commitment making techniques.     Facilities.  23 (13/14).  pp.542 – 557.
  • Pillay, H.,  Tones, M. and Kelly, K., 2011. Gender patterns for aspirations for transitional     employment and training and development in local government. Gender in     Management: An International Journal.  26 (5).  pp.367 – 379.
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