Taking in reference with the hospitality sector, food safety management is regarded as a significant issue. This is because of the fact that there is an enhancement in human disease which alerts them about the health (Holah, 2013). Pertaining to this, the current research report aims to evaluate the significance of remaining hygienic and safety control systems. It will further determine various measures that can be undertaken in order to keep food healthy and safe. In addition to this, the present report will also comprehend the importance of cleaning, pest control, personal hygiene for preserving the food so as to protect it from defect and spoilage. The later part of the report will talk about the areas while designing new premises with hygiene environment.
TASK – 1
1.1 Controls to prevent physical and chemical contamination of food
Throwing light towards food contamination, it is being defined as a situation when the food is spoiled due to the presence of harmful micro-organisms in the food. It can also be a source of illness and food poisoning to people. Physical contamination happens when the food is being spoiled due to some objects such as metal or glass, hair, jewelry, fingernails etc. On the other hand chemical contamination takes place when the food come in contact with some chemicals such as kitchen cleaning agents, pest control products, unwashed food products and many more (Doyle, 2012). There are several control measures available and these are as follows:
Control measures for physical contamination
- Always cover the food
- Clean utensils properly
- Repair or replace damaged equipments
Control measures for chemical contamination
- Store cleaning chemicals separately
- Using pest control effectively
- Chemicals used should be stored in correct manner and must be labeled properly
1.2 Comparing the features of food poisoning and food borne infections
Food poisoning is majorly caused due to consumption of toxin food materials. The toxin can be produced by micro-organism. These toxins influence the biological reaction taking place in the body. The general symptoms of food poisoning are nausea and vomiting. On contrary, food borne infections generally takes place because of the infectious pathogens in food. These micro-organisms multiply in intestine and damage the epithelium cells. The common symptoms of food borne infections are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, fatigues etc. Some of the usually recognized foods borne infections are Giardia, campylobacteriosis, Vibrio infections, Listeriosis, Salmonella and Yersinia (Jay, 2012).
Further talking in reference to food poisoning and food born infections, they have more or less similar kind of meaning. They both have a common subject area i.e. food microbiology. In both food poisoning and food borne infections, food spoilage microorganism is the main cause of low quality of end products.
1.3 Ways of controlling food borne illness
Food borne illness can be caused due to infections, chemical contamination as well as from the natural toxins. These include Salmonella, Yersinia, campylobacteriosis, Botulinum etc. There are number of ways of controlling these are as follows:
- Salmonella – These bacteria is very harmful and dangerous to the human body and it takes place in intestinal tracts of human body. This type of illness can be controlled and prevented by cooking food properly and cleanly.
- Yersinia – These bacteria are founded in lymph and faeces of human body. It is generally found in milk, vegetables and tofu. If the food is cooked effectively, it can kill these bacteria (Banach, Sampers and Haute, 2015).
- Campylobacteriosis – It is same as Salmonella and harmful too. It is generally transferred from chicken, milk, mushrooms and shellfish. This can be killed by cooking the food.
- Botulinum – It is very infectious bacteria and can generate poison. It generally takes place from soil and water and contaminates the food, it is not cooked well.
TASK – 2
2.1 Categorizing the food-spoilage agents that affect food
Food spoilage is nothing but deterioration of the food quality to that point that it is not edible to humans. There are very common agents that lead to corrosion of food and these are being defined underneath:
Food Spoilage Agents
Foods affected by each food spoilage agent.
Fruits and vegetables, dairy products, milk
Micro-organisms (Bacteria, Yeast, Moulds)
Milk, surface of jellies and jams, lemon, breads, starchy foods, fruits juices, syrups, honey, meat, fish and molasses (Chemat, Zill-e-Huma and Khan, 2011)
Perishable food items like milk, meat, cereals, vegetables, fruits and it also causes lumping in spices and powder etc.
Worms, flies, bugs, and other insects causing damage to both perishable and non-perishable food items
2.2 Discussing and evaluating the methods of food preservation
Food preservation is a method through which the growth of the micro-organism in food can be prevented. In simple words, it is nothing but a science that helps in extending the shelf-life of food. Methods for preserving the food are described below:
- Canning – This is being considered as the simplest method of preserving the food, where food is kept in cans and stored for longer duration of time. It is generally effective for maintaining the flavors of fresh food. Canning is generally used to store pickles which are acidic in nature (Abdelsamie, Rahmanand Mustafa, 2014).
- Fermentation – This method helps in minimizing the risk of food safety spoilage and preserves the food. In other words, it is a technique that attracts the useful micro-organism towards the food and transfers the food in acidic form. Furthermore, this method is quite effective in controlling and monitoring the rotting of food by making use of specific bacteria that gives the desired outcome.
- Refrigerating – Refrigerating is the most common technique being used by every individuals. It helps in protecting the food from getting spoiled for longer duration of consumption. It is preserve with a motive to minimize the microbes and yeast that leads to worsening of food.
- Drying food – It is being regarded as the traditional form of preservation, where seasonal food products such as vegetables and fruits are dried and stored. The management of the hotel can make use of this technique for dehydrating the water content from fruits as well as vegetables to maintain their taste.
TASK – 3
3.1 Discussing the key steps in a temperature control system
The main reason behind the deterioration of food is inappropriate use of temperature as well as time. It is important for the managers of the hotel to have adequate comprehension in regards with utilization of heat, chillers, freezers etc. so as to protect the food from getting contaminated (Aung and Chang, 2014). Temperature control system is a safety tool that helps in maintaining and controlling the temperature to prevent spoilage of fruits and vegetables.
- Delivery – Once the food is delivered to the managers of F&B department of hotel, they are assorted and stored in cool and dry places according to their nature.
- Stored – food which are perishable such as meat, fish, dairy items etc. are stored in cold storage. On the other hand, those that needs to be kept in dry places such as spices and powders.
- Cooling – There are many food items that can be prevented from getting spoiled is by storing them in cold storage or temperatures. The temperature at which the food should be stored is dependent on the type of food items. For example, ice-creams and packed foods need to be kept frozen unless and until it is delivered to customers.
- Reheating – There are many food products that are stored in refrigerators and require reheating prior giving to the customers.
3.2 Summarizing methods for the safe storage of food
It is quite essential to store the food in correct and effective manner so as to prevent them from contamination and some of the ways for safe storage of food are as follows:
- Correct temperature to be controlled and maintained for different food products
- Proper management in relation with the inventory of stock
- Labeling the food items (Bhattacharya, 2014)
- Proper cleaning and washing of equipments which are used for storage
- Use by date should be shown in labeling to protect the food from contamination
3.3 Importance of personal hygiene
At the time of preparing the food, maintaining hygiene is considered to be an important nature of an individual. It is essential for an individual to maintain personal hygiene in order to avoid from any kind of exposure. The significance of personal hygiene in control of food contamination can be achieved by:
- Proper hand wash should be done by chef of the restaurant before entering into the food area after coming from washrooms (Ahmed, Qazi and Jamal, 2016).
- It is also important for the food handler to avoid wearing any kind of jewelry as it might contain bacteria and other micro-organism.
- Maintaining time table for pest control activities will help in maintaining the health of the staff members as well as food handler
3.4 Evaluating cleaning and disinfection as a process
Cleaning is considered to be a vital factor for maintaining healthy and safe environment for an individual. Through this, the food can be prevented from spoilage and bacteria. The hotel is required to carry out a cleaning program in order to makes sure that food residues and dirt should be removed from every corner of the equipment being used for cooking food, which can be a great source of contamination. Further, the chemicals being used for cleaning should be kept safely and away from food preparing area in order to avoid adulteration (Motarjemi and Lelieveld, 2014). Hotel should take into consideration both physical i.e. scrubbing, vacuum cleaning and chemical method such as dry cleaning, rinsing water debris for maintaining cleanliness. In addition to this, the cleaning as well as disinfection program must be closely monitored. Specification of areas, equipments and utensils to be used for cooking food must be specified to the department and people should be held responsible for maintaining frequent cleaning and monitoring arrangements. It is also vital to document the cleaning program in order to escape from the situation of adverse hazard.
3.5 Assess the problems with pest control in food premises
- Pest sometimes cause the food hazardous for the clients
- Can be major threat to the safety and suitability of the food products
- Higher risk of infection to people, which can be avoided by proper sanitation and inspection of the incoming materials (Stranks, 2007)
- Hotel can face the smell from pest, which can dilute in food if it is left open
- In order to eliminate the potential bleeding sites, building must be repaired on time
- Entry of pest can be prevented by protecting windows, ventilation, doors and holes and drains should be sealed.
3.6 Justifying the need for hygienic design and construction of food premises
Each and every business concern is required to have a hygienic design and construction of food premises for the purpose of making food safer for the consumers. With hygienic design and construction, the hotel will be able to attract more customers and this will also improve the brand image reputation of the hotel in the market (King, 2013). The design of the food premises should be constructed by considering various factors and these are:
- Separate areas for food preparation and their storage in order to avoid physical damage.
- Proper use of pest control devices at varied locations
- Hotel is required to follow good hygiene standards and methods of cleaning so as to make sure hygienic environment
3.7 Justifying the significance of training as a quality assurance mechanism
The management of the hotel is required to give training to their workers on several issues such as spreading awareness for hygiene standards and aura of environment to be maintained. In addition to this, proper training should be given to employees on the subjects related to hygiene, food defects and many more by specialized person (Salazar, 2013). Further, training should be arranged for the handler in areas like ways of handling prepared food, proper ways of storing the food items etc. Through training, hotel can make sure that their employees have requisite comprehension as well as understanding about quality assurance. Furthermore, staff member needs to attend training sessions on the topics such as pest control, food safety, cleanliness, proper storage of food, methods of preservation.
TASK – 4
4.1 Produce a food hazard risk assessment
Risk of these hazards
Slips and trips
The food service staff and customers can be injured
Reminding staff to maintain good standards of housekeeping
Manual handling of heavy sacks and boxes
Food service and kitchen staff may suffer injuries and strains (Brownlee, 2013)
Team working should be facilitated for moving heavy boxes and sacks
Contact with hot water, steam and hot oil
Chef, kitchen staff, helpers can suffer burn injuries
Displaying sign related to hot water, proper handles on pans and wolks
4.2 Food safety control system
The food safety and control system plays an important role in protecting the health of the customers by minimizing the risks being caused by food borne diseases. Further, it helps in contributing in the economic development by significantly upholding the confidence of customers in the system of food. The food safety control system must ensure:
- High level of health protection to customers
- High quality, management and communication of risks, transparency and assessing the risks (Collado, Corke and Dizon, 2014)
- The system helps in avoiding the hazards by providing precautions and measures to handle food.
- Proper track of the products
- Clear provision and responsibility for food safety and quality to be followed by clients
4.3 Devise a food safety guide for legislation compliance
- With these guidelines, hotel can learn various ways to make the product safe for the customers
- Food safety guide offers understanding to the hotel about the practices to handle food product (Newslow, 2013)
- Hotel should display food safety measures according to the product’s type
- Record keeping for indicating procedures related to food safety
- Guidelines provides support to train employees regarding maintaining safety of the products
Thus, it can be said that food business is in great need to adopt certain laws and rules in order to make sure that the food being sold by them is not harmful and will not cause any type of illness to the consumers of food.
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- Collado, L.S., Corke, H. and Dizon, E.I., 2014. Food safety in the Philippines: problems and solutions. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 7(1), pp.45-56.
- Doyle, M.P., 2012. Food microbiology: fundamentals and frontiers. American Society for Microbiology Press.