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Hospitality Operations

University: University of Suffolk

  • Unit No: 15
  • Level: Diploma
  • Pages: 11 / Words 2813
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: N/A
  • Downloads: 8939

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Conclusion


The hospitality industry encompasses a group of companies dedicated to delighting and accommodating customers by providing valuable services. This includes various fields such as lodging, event planning, theme parks, travel, accommodation, and more (Sheresheva, 2016). The current report is about The Celeste Restaurant, part of Lanesborough Hotel which operates its business in London and offer variety of food items. It is now planning to reinvigorate its menu card for enhancing its brand image and adding nutritious food in their list. This project includes an explanation about history of menu along with its type and categories. Further it explains about the roles and responsibility of food & beverages restaurant manager. Apart from this it also includes description about the menu engineering and systematic approach to apply it along with various issues that may be faced while preparing menu.


The key milestones of history, origin and development of menu, basic category and type of menu in food & beverages outlets

Food & Beverages is consider as the fastest growing industry throughout the world as group of companies belongs to this sector are keep on innovating their current process to enhance their standard or quality of services for satisfying customers. This sector involves the companies which operates their business in processing of raw material, packaging and delivering them. In these organisations food menu plays an essential role by displaying the list of food item along with their price per unit that are being offered by the particular restaurant or food outlet. This help in provide a cue about the dishes that are available to them along with their price so that they can select among them.

History, origin and development of menu:

The word menu is generally originated from French terminology where it means cuisines. Earlier restaurants doesn't maintain any physical menu rather their waiters read out the name served variety of dishes. After which people started adding chalkboard outside their restaurant door to list out various dishes (Jauncey and Nadkarni 2014). The physical menu was first developed in Paris which get changed throughout the nineteenth century from a single large page with lots of closely packed type, booklets and single sheet design with illustrations. Later with he advancement of technology the physical menu get updated with digital display and then online menu over official website of restaurant.

Categories of menu:

The menu come under several categories that can be used by service provider for presenting their food & services in a most effective manner. Because menu have an great influence over the choice of customer. Therefore, menu must be representative and maintained properly as per the convenience of customers. Categories of menu are explained below:

Paper:- It refers to the type of menu where the products name and details like price, quantity offered etc. are simply printed over a paper. These menus sometimes includes illusions and photos of particular dishes just to gain the attention of customers toward it. The Celeste Restaurant generally print the menu paper for presenting the food list offered by them in front of their customers over table.

Menu Board:- These are the type of menu are generally seen in fast food restaurants and cafeterias where the food items are printed or written over a large poster over the wall of restaurants. By printing a displaying menu board, The Celeste Restaurant will be able to attract all the patrons so that can check the list of food offered by resturant and if interested can order for the same.

Digital display:- Some restaurants prefer to display their food list along with pictures over LCD and plasma display which allow them to digitally display the moving image, add some animation effects (Jauncey and Nadkarni 2014). This is most attractive way to gain the attention of customers toward food and it is also much easier to edit or update the menu. Through digital display The Celeste Restaurant will be able to present its food items as per day parting like breakfast, dinner, lunch etc.

Online menu:- There are number of restaurants which provide online ordering and food delivery services to its customers, where the food offered by them are being presented over their website along with all the information regarding price, payment options, delivery time, phone no. etc. By presenting online menu over their official website of The Celeste Restaurant so that they can attract person to their restaurant who ever visit their website (Huang and Sun 2014).

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Type of menu:-

There are various types of menu which are generally used by the restaurants some of common types are explained below:

Dessert menu:- Generally the majority of menus have a section of dessert but as servers collect the menus after guest ordered the food. As a result of which the dessert sections sometimes missed by the customers (Perramon and et al 2014). So various restaurants has now started maintaining a separate menu for dessert which is presented to customer after they had their food. The Celeste Restaurant should separate this section also from their main menu book. This will help in making customers happy when they are offered with some sweets after they finish eating.

Beverages menu:- This type of menu includes the list of beverages that are being offered by a restaurant such as beer, cocktail, wine, soda or juice. Beverages menu is managed by the restaurants which also perform and offer the services of bar. The Celeste Restaurant must also focuses over expanding their offers by including a separate section of bar and maintaining a beverage menu which support them in providing all things expected by customers at one place.


Analyse the role and responsibilities of restaurant manager in Food & Beverages department

Food & Beverages department is consider as one of the most essential part of a restaurant as well as hotel as work towards ensuring that the demanded food will be served to the customer on time and in required quality. This department is responsible for the maintaining the standard of food and services in order to maintain a long term relation with customers (Taylor and et. al., 2015). The food & beverages restaurant manager is responsible for the forecasting, planning and managing all the stuff required for preparation and serving of food to customers. Restaurant manager is also responsible for managing the finance for purchasing food as well as drink for hotel premises which includes sourcing, ordering and transporting the items. Following are the roles and responsibility of Food & Beverages Restaurant manager:

Providing excellent customer services:- The goal of each restaurant is to maintain their customer base so that they visit the outlets again and again. So, the role of F&B restaurant manager is to ensure the effective services must be delivered to the customer so that their expectation can be meet. Therefore manager of The Celeste Restaurant is responsible for handling all the concerns that may be faced and must ensure that guest will have the experience for which they are looking.

Update & Design menus:- The restaurant manager is also responsible for the updating the menu on regular bases as per the demand and requirement of customers. Manager of The Celeste Restaurant must analyse the expectation of customer and try to include those food trends and beverages in their menu list (Brotherton, 2015). The regular improvement over food menu will help a restaurant to improve their image among its customers in marketplace.

Oversee daily operations:- The F&B restaurant managers are also responsible for ensuring effective execution of day to day activities of running a restaurant. The role of managers of The Celeste Restaurant is to schedule the shift, order supplies, assign tasks, maintain accounting as well as inventory record and managing the expenses.

Food & Safety:- The restaurant manager must have a thorough knowledge about the food safety standards as managers are responsible for ensuring that these criteria must be meet within the operations performed by restaurant. Managers of Celeste Restaurant must prepare the checklist and procedure for ensuring that each operations performed within the premises must be according to the legal standard or regulations.

Financial functions:- The food & beverages restaurant manager is responsible for performing a variety of financial functions like purchasing of stock related to F&B, goods receiving, storage control, goods receiving, planning & carrying out budgets and other financial duties. So restaurant managers of The Celeste Restaurant are responsible for performing financial operations in order to ensure that all the required stuff is available to staff on time so that the demand of customer get satisfied.

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Explain menu engineering and state the systematic approach that John Mclean can follow for menu engineering

Menu engineering is an art of arranging the menu items in a systematic and more profitable manner over menu board that promote high sale (Huang, Liu and Hsu., 2014). This is a market oriented approach which high light the good or poor performing dishes in a menu which further support in providing vital information for preparing next menu more appealing to the customers. Menu engineering uses both profitability and popularity of competing menu items for developing the new menu which put more emphases over gross margin instead of food cost percentage (Menu engineering, 2018). The Celeste Restaurant is a part of Lanesborough Hotel which operates its business in London and is now planning to reinvigorate the menu of restaurant. The main reason behind this is that the menu doesn't get updated from last two year and this may affect the reputation of restaurant in market. So, for this John Mclean is hired by Lanesborough Hotel for menu engineering as he goes up through several Food & Beverages management courses.

Systematic approach for menu engineering:-

The menu engineering will be more appealing and profitable if it is created in a systematic manner by using guest demand, revenue margin and by determining the performance of each menu item. John Mclean can use BCG matrix for menu engineering in order to reinvigorate the menu of The Celeste Restaurant. These areas can be better understood using following point:

Star: High profit and high popularity:

These sections includes food dishes which are most popular and provide high benefit to the restaurant. Star items are highly demanded items of menu which provide higher profit margin and they can be the signature item of menu (Miao and Wei 2016). John Mclean must rigidly specify these items for quality, quantity as well as presentation and locate them over highly visible position of the menu as they are star items.

Plowhorse: Low profitability and High popularity:

The food items under this category are generally higher in popularity but put low contribution toward margin. These items are demand generators which can be lead or signature items of menu. John Mclean must increase the price of these product to achieve more profit as these are popular items but the changes must not be noticeable as it may affect the customer's choice.

Puzzles: High profitability and Low popularity:

This category involve those items which are lower in popularity but put higher contribution toward the profit margin of restaurant. Puzzle item profit high profit when it get sold but they are harder to sell (Mejia and Torres, 2018). For these menu items John Mclean must try to improve the quality of its current dishes to enhance the popularity either by hiring new staff or improving the current process. If it doesn't work then John Mclean must reposition with some additional flavours.

Dogs: Low profitability and Low popularity:

It includes items with low popularity and less contribution toward the profit margin of restaurant. They are most unpopular item of menu card which generate less or no profit. John Mclane must try to eliminate the all dog items if possible or these items must be excluded from menu but kept in inventory (Tang, 2014). These items will be offered to special guest and from their feedbacks those items must be altered for re-adding it to menu.

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Issues involve in implementing strategies that recognise nutrition concerns for healthier options on menu

The Celeste Restaurant is planning to reinvigorate its current menu card for enhancing its brand image and to make it more profitable for restaurant by menu engineering method. Because the food items offered by tasty but they don't involve much nutritions and healthy benefit which sometimes restrict the health conscious people to visit this restaurant. For overcoming these issues various strategies can be implemented by the Celeste Restaurant. Like, they can use ingredient which fulfil the nutrition demand of people without compromising with its taste. Apart from this they can also add a new section in their menu which enlist the nutrition dishes as per the requirement of people. But while implementing these strategies during planning or preparation of menu various issues that may be faced by Celeste restaurant. These issues can be better understood using following points:

Food quality & standard policy:- The major issues that may be faced by Celeste restaurant during planning or preparation of menu is to offer a food that consist of both quality and nutrition at one time. Because it is not possible to maintain both things together, but it is required by Celeste restaurant that their all nutritious dishes must also comply with quality standards (Sheehan, Grant and Garavan 2018).

Lack of resources: This is also another major resources that Celeste restaurant may found while implementing strategy, as scarcity of resources may affect the quality or taste of dishes. Therefore, restaurant must use maintain a record in order to predict the resources require as per the demand of customers so that inventory must be available on time.

Age group differences:- This is also one of the major issue that may be faced by The Celeste restaurant as it is planning to add nutritious food in their menu list along with tasty food. So, for adding these items it is required to categories the nutrition as well as taste of food as per the requirement of particular age group. As people belong to different age group are different in term of their taste, preferences and demand (Sheresheva 2018). So it is not possible for them to cater the demand of all age group customers with single strategy as they require to formulate different tactics as per the expectation of customers belong to different age group.


From the above given information it can be summarised that hospitality industry is one of the fastest growing sector where key players are continuously bringing new innovations within the marketplace to remain competitive. Therefore it is very essential for a Food & Beverages Outlets to keep on reinvigorate its menu card as it plays an essential role in attracting customers toward services offered by a restaurant. This can be done through menu engineering which support in arranging the menu items in a profitable sequence that help in earning more revenue margin. But while planning or preparing a menu number of issues that are generally faced by outlets to implement strategies which includes age group difference, lack of resources and food quality & standard policy.


  • Brotherton, B., 2015. Researching hospitality and tourism. Sage.
  • Huang, S. S. and Sun, X. M., 2014. Economy hotels in china: A glocalized innovative hospitality sector. Routledge.
  • Huang, S., Liu, Z. and Hsu, C. H., 2014. Customer experiences with economy hotels in China: Evidence from mystery guests. Journal of hospitality marketing & management. 23(3). pp.266-293.
  • Jauncey, S. and Nadkarni, S., 2014. Expo 2020: What must Dubai's hospitality and tourism industry do to be ready pre-and post-event?. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes. 6(4). pp.381-386.
  • Mejia, C. and Torres, E. N., 2018. Implementation and normalization process of asynchronous video interviewing practices in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 30(2). pp.685-701.
  • Miao, L. and Wei, W., 2016. Consumers' pro-environmental behavior and its determinants in the lodging segment. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 40(3). pp.319-338.
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