TITLE- Corporate governance and strategies issues
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview of research
An issue related to the corporate governance is a term that describe the mutual balance between the participants in the organization. There are different participants interested towards the business operations and functions such as shareholders, community staff member and executive staff etc.(Werani, 2018). A Corporate governance practices directly impact on the business profit and reputation of the organization and having the poor policies that can expose the firms to loss of capital investment, reputation damage etc. This research mainly defined concept of corporate governance and its role in maintaining relationship among workers.
1.2 Overview of organisation
Marks and Spencer is a famous British multinational retailer that came into existence in middle of 1884. It was established by Sir Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer. This retailer company in UK is listed one of the biggest brand which has run more than 980 stores in near about 57 countries, in London Stock Exchange. But from last performances, it has analyzed that M&S faces some issues related to retain interest of its stakeholders within business. It is arisen due to costly restructuring the corporate strategy for maintaining sustainability at marketplace. This led management of M&S to think twice on decision-making process which are concerning mainly upon future (M&S still feeling the heat as winter approaches,2019). Any such type of decisions and CG policies are majorly depended on whether this firm is able to create changes in business. This would spread various negative rumors about Marks and Spencer which adversely disrupted its image as well.
In this regard, it has been evaluated that every step which is taken by respective firm for restructuring its business went wrong. This would lead to decrease market share of this company more adversely. Along with this, it has also analyzed that idea of restructuring the infrastructure has led M&S to face various issues. It includes near about sixty-two percent fall in profitability of business annually. Due to this issue, respective company also fails to gain interest of stakeholders and their financial support in implementation of further project.
1.3 Problem Statement
Corporate Governance reflects relationship among Board of Directors, Management, Shareholders, Employees and other stakeholders in a company. It deals with the ways by which suppliers or investors who finance in corporations assure themselves, to get high return on their investment (Quinlan and et.al., 2019). The issues of corporate governance will impact on the financial performance of organization and also measure the accountability of different entities in terms of policies, activities and operations. The researcher will find out the strong relationship between the corporate governance practices and impact on the financial performance of organization. In context with Marks and Spencer, as this company faces related to failure of corporate governance. Therefore, this research will help in determining factors that is impacting on following of CG practices of M&S. It will help in taking effective measures to minimize impact and increase profits through CG practices. It also identifies ways by effective CG practices can be implemented within business, by taking consideration the overall interest of stakeholders.
1.4 Research Aim and Objectives
In order to conduct a research, the most essential task for researchers is to formulate proper aims and objectives. The overall result and success of a project depends on both of these aspects. It provides guidelines to research-team related to identify issues and address the main objectives of research. In this regard, main aim and objective of present case study which is based on Corporate Governance of M&S, are described as beneath:
“To investigate the impact of stakeholder relationship on financial performance of business- A study on Marks and Spencer”
- To identify role of corporate governance policies and practices in an organization
- To determine relationship between stakeholder relationship and financial performance of business
- To recommend how corporate governance policies can be implemented within Marks and Spencer
1.5 Research Question
- What is the role of corporate governance, policies and practices in an organization?
- What is the relationship between stakeholder relationship and financial performance of business?
- How corporate governance policies can be implemented within Marks and Spencer?
1.6 Structure of research
This part describes overall structure of an assignment under which a research is going to be carried out. It provides actions which are needed to be completed by project-makers for improving and increasing effectiveness of a research (Bainbridge, 2016). Therefore, in this regard, structure of present research can be described in following manner:-
Chapter 1: Introduction- This is the most important part of research which includes overview of project and organisation which is undertaken for the same. It entails main purpose behind conducting an investigation. In addition to this, it also consists specific aims and objectives, on which entire research is based.
Chapter 2: Literature review- Under this part, secondary sources are taken to analyse the perception of different authors and experts, who have already conduct research on same topic. For this purpose, articles, books and journals have been accessed to collect relevant information on chosen case study.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology- This part of research describes methodologies by which project-makers can gather adequate amount of data. It includes primary and secondary sources which helps in collecting specific information in precise manner.
Chapter 4: Critical Data Analysis- It shows a critical discussion on information which has been gathered under primary and secondary research. Here, discussion is made through view point and perception of different authors in critical manner.
Chapter 5: Recommendation and Action Plan- Here, specific suggestions are provided under recommendation part to a company, for resolving its issues. It provides ways by which a corporation like M&S can enhance its reputation and improve its corporate governance policies. Furthermore, it also highlights action plan which is used to conduct entire activities of chosen research.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Role of corporate governance policies and practices
According to Bainbridge, (2016) corporate governance is the most significantly visited themes in the organizations. It is also managed and control the overall accountability of organization in proper manner.An effective corporate governance has been required the directors that could be maintain the procedure and practices of companies in proper manner. It encompasses that the executive members reporting to the broad members and aware about the daily operation that performed in the organization. On the other hand, Accountability is an essential for corporate governance to divided into the top level and lower level executive in the firm that help for maintain the entire system of checks and balances in effective manner. As per the view of Bainbridge, (2016) all the members of executive board will be having ethical duty in way of making decision which will be based on best interest of stockholders. However, corporation will be having ethical duty in protecting social welfare of others including all stakeholders and greater community as well.
Most of the people believes that companies whether it is large, medium or small establish their business with the help of many stakeholders so that maximum benefits can be availed. Apart from this, reality is that for operating business in an effective manner good governance plays a crucial role because its positive impact can be seen in the performance of an individual working in an organisation. “Corporate Governance” is single handedly a very wider concept and it further plays a crucial role in making policies and practices. Such as it help organisation in making laws based on corporate legislation, securities regulators, decisions of courts, securities laws and policies etc., As a result, following laws will help company with numerous benefits such as high performance of Board of Directors, better managed risks, strong internal controls with accountable management, well monitored and better performance.
In terms of best practice with the help of Corporate Governance, if it is followed effectively than board of directors can identify the gaps in context with ideal qualities employees have with them. Other than this, better training can be provided existing skills and knowledge of employees can be enhanced. Along with this, through Corporate Governance, certain roles and responsibilities of an individual are defined such as role of sub-group of directors committee will include functions like compensation, nominating, audit etc., Another practices which can be undertaken in Corporate Governance is that it helps in evaluating performance so that effective decisions regarding compensation that is required to be given can be made. While operating business there can be many risk that can face by companies so, Corporate Governance helps in making effective risk management plan with the help of establishing strategic leadership. Thus, managers are accountable for managing risk and monitoring the same so that effective decision can be made. Along with this, directors have an overview and show their responsibility of determining short-term as well as long-term goals and possible risk that can be faced by companies.
2.2 Relationship between stakeholder relationship and financial performance of business
According to de França, Pereira and Vieira, (2018) the organization is also planning a strategy for acting different role on internally and also select the suitable strategy for growth or development. It is a process and task that involves facts and figure at their workplace for executing stratagem or support to the employee related their job. Sometimes, the organization is planning for strategy related the formulation but its fail for implementing the changes in operations. Stakeholders are the most important part of any organisation as they are having power to impact decision making process within company and ultimately impacting financial performance as well. The relationship of stakeholders are unique in their ability to help firms to get their performance better.
2.3 Strategies can be implemented to improve CG practices in Marks and Spencer
According to Bell, Bryman and Harley, (2018) an organization must be accurately collecting data in the form of report to identify their profits or losses. It makes sure to figure out that those who invest money in the organization. Sometimes, the lack of transparency expose the fines from the regulatory agencies in the organization. Issues and problem arises when corporate governance fails to perform it activities in an effective manner. For instance: with Marks and Spencer, Stakeholders are pulling their hand from the company and this is happening because of re-structuring of M&S as a result, firm ultimately faced huge loss. Therefore, Marks and Spencer, must make strategies for their organisation that can be implemented in order to enhance Corporate Governances within the company. Some of them are explained below for better understanding:
Increase diversity: Marks and Spencer is facing lack of diversity in terms of effective stakeholders and experienced employees. Because of the least interest of Stakeholders, expected sales get down by 1.5 percent large in the sector of clothing. Therefore, it is important that Marks and Spencer includes people who can manage and handle different activities
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology will concept that used by researcher for collecting, analyzing and managing the data in appropriate manner. It will be helpful for selecting the suitable information that applicable in research areas.
Primary data- The researcher will use the primary data collection method to collect the data through Questionnaire, conducting interviews etc. This will help in gathering fresh data and information and analysing them through this it will be easy for researcher to attain aims and objectives. Therefore, it can be said that it is a methodology which further used in order to gather data and information that have not been used by any other researcher while doing their research. Thus, it is very applicable in order to have in depth knowledge regarding a specific topic in which investigator wants to master. Henceforth, main advantage of primary research is to come up to a valid conclusion by searching for an effective solutions. In relation with the present research, company will get to know about the issues that firm is facing while operating their business and gaining competitive advancement as well. Furthermore, different kinds of tools and technologies is going to be used such as questionnaire, online and offline surveys, interviews and many more. Thus, some of them are explained below for better understanding:
Interviews (telephonic or face-to-face): This is one of the qualitative method of data collection. Therefore, it is used in order to gather information from large number of population either by telephonic conversation or face-to-face interviews. Furthermore, so as to do the same researcher can use d This kind of research methodology is generally depends upon the capability of researcher and the way he/she influence respondents for extracting data and information. Therefore, in order to conduct this interview conversation it is important that open end questions are being developed which can only last for around 30 minutes. Thus, it can be said that interview method if very effective when researcher wants to gather information in shorter period of time. In relation with interview it is required that effective communication method is being used because it will enable researcher in gathering appropriated information or responses from respondents.
Online Surveys: With the change in course of time, many new methods had evolved and online survey is one of them. In this,, basically information are collected through mail, internet, social media sites etc., so, generally researcher develops open end questions provided with few options so that respondent can choose according to their choices and preferences. Therefore, in this process once respondents gets the questions, answer them and sent it back to researcher. This helps investigator in gathering information without going to respondent personally. But it has some disadvantage as well because there might be a possibility that people may reject to give answers of questionnaires.
Questionnaire: Among all this is the best method of collecting data and information from respondents by formulating a questionnaire. Thus, questions needs to be in a structured manner starting with the understanding and ending with if any recommendation researcher wants to provide on a given topic. In this all data and information are gathered in a speculated time frame.
In relation with this research, project managers o Marks and Spencer will make use of questionnaire by providing well structured questionnaire related to research topics. Along with this, sample size which will be taken for gathering data is around 10 through random sampling.
Secondary data- collection will another method that help for collecting the information or data through articles, journals etc. This will give insight to researcher about the topic moreover, by interpreting case studies relevant information will be collected. For present study, researcher will use both methods to gather data.
Sampling- Sampling will be explained as specific principle that used for selecting the particular members in the population. Researcher will use the 20 employees of M&S to target population and researcher will have no choice of particular study within the population that reach to their conclusion. The researcher will use simple random technique that gives chance of members participating in the research study.
Analyses method- Data analysis method will help for transforming, cleansing and modelling the data with discovering the specific goals and achievements. The researcher will use the thematic data analysis of qualitative method for identifying the multiple approaches, facts and figures etc.
Design- Research design will general plan about the answer in the research questions. It included research method and strategies for analysing and collecting the data in proper manner. It will be divided into two ways such as Exploratory and conclusive.
For further research, Exploratory research will use for determine the nature and problem of research. It will explore the research topic with different level of depths. It will help for researcher determining the design, methodology and data collections. Exploratory method will generally study about the qualitative information and interpretation related to the subject.
Access and Ethics- Ethical consideration will be specified about the important part of research.
- The researcher participants will not be subjected to harm the ethical in any ways.
- It will respect to the dignity of participants in the research subject or topic.
- The researcher should always maintain the privacy and protection of participants and members.
- It ensures that the level of confidentiality maintain in the research data and information.
Q1) Do you think relationship of a company with its stakeholders impact on its financial performance?
Q2) What is the main role of corporate governance within an organization?
a) Run business in ethical manner
b) Reduce chance of conflict of interest
c) Build effective relationship with stakeholder
Q3) What is the most effective CG practices of M&S?
a) Build relationship with stakeholders to improve financial performance
b) Develop strong brand image at international marketplace
c) Increase productivity of workers to gain competitive advancement
Q4) What is the main reason behind failure of corporate governance of M&S?
a) A move to restructure
b) Ineffective plans for international expansion
c) Inappropriate human resource allocation
Q5) According to you, which strategy helps in improving CG practices of M&S?
a) Prioritize risk management
b) Understand the concept of human resource allocation
c) Increase diversity
Q6) What are the main factors M&S needs to concern while developing corporate governance?
a) Internal capabilities of business
b) Competitive strategies
c) Corporate goals
Q7) Do you think M&S gains more competitive advantage as compared to its competitors?
Q8) Provide recommendation for M&S in improving its CG practices for further expansion of business?
CHAPTER 5 : RECOMMENDATION AND ACTION PLAN
As through this research, it has concluded that stakeholder relationship adversely affect the financial performance of a company, both in negative and positive manner. Here, corporate strategy and governance plays an importance role in developing and managing sustainable position of business. It provides a number of ways for serving satisfaction to stakeholders. Therefore, it is recommended to M&S to concern on this factor while developing its corporate-governance. It includes the effective system of rules, processes and practices, through which respected firm can direct and control its operations. In addition to this, CG practices also significantly involves the process of balancing the stakeholders interests. These practices will help in providing proper guidelines or plan to managers for managing and controlling its business operations. Through this process, respective company will gain advantage to fulfil its corporate goals and objectives in effective manner. It will create value of business in international marketplace, which seems to be beneficial for holding interest of stakeholders within business for longer period.
Furthermore, for improving current CG practices to gain competitive advancement and cooperation of stakeholders towards completion of major project, it is recommended to Board of Directors to concern on some main factors. It includes increase diversity at business, prioritize risk management plan, understanding the concept of human resource allocation and more. Since Marks and Spencer mainly faces issues due to lack of diversity in terms of effective stakeholders and experienced employees. Therefore, Marks and Spencer must concern on giving recruitment to high-talented workforce, who are experienced in dealing with national and international customers in their languages. They will help this retailer in providing best customer services and improve its brand image. In addition to this, diversity at workplace enhance productivity of workplace also, by giving high contribution on accomplishment of mentioned goals and objectives.
In addition to this, to gain high commitment of workers and utilise human resource, it is recommended to managers to identify strength and weaknesses of employees on individual basis. This would help in distributing roles and responsibilities to each worker as per their skills and capabilities. In addition to this, managers can also identify requirement of training programs for improving knowledge and reducing skill gap among workers. It will provide job satisfaction under employees and motivate them to work more hard, for providing best services to customers. Through effective human resource allocation, M&S can gain support of workers and staff members in generating idea for retaining loyal customers in business. In addition to this, it also reduce staff turnover rate which helps in decreasing cost of production as well. As experienced and talented workforce will provide high-quality of services. Furthermore, for preventing failure of corporate-governance, it is recommended to M&S to concern on developing risk management plan. It will includes a number of alternative strategies which company can use, in case of failure of any policy. It will also help in estimating future risks and issues which may impact on business negatively. This would help in preparing management plan for responding towards such issues. Therefore, concerning on these factors- human resource allocation, increase diversity and prepare risk management plan, will aid M&S in expanding business in overseas more appropriately.
5.2 Action Plan
This part of research includes entire activities which are required to address issues and attains objectives of a project. It provides a guideline to researchers in what manner they have to perform, for completing each activity in set period of time. In context with present project, which is based on developing policies for improving CG practices of M&S, the major activities are mentioned in given action plan:-
Step 1: Selection of topic
This is an initial step where researchers are required to choose a particular topic for conducting a research. In this regard, the main topic of present research is based on concept of corporate-governance, for which M&S has been chosen.
Step 2: Framing aim and objectives
After choosing the main topic, another activity of action plan states to frame proper aims and objectives. This would help project-makers to analyze what they have to achieve and in which area investigation has to be done. In this regard, the main aim and objective of present research-
Aim “To investigate the impact of stakeholder relationship on financial performance of business- A study on Marks and Spencer”
Step 3: Conducting literature review
After formulating aim and objectives, next step is to access information from various secondary resources to conduct literature review. This would help researchers in analysing perception of various authors for the importance of CG practices for M&S in running its business successfully.
Step 4: Research method selection
It provides methods by which relevant information can be gathered and analyzed for increasing efficiencies of a research.
Step 5: Data collection
Here, researchers will choose methods for gathering information on chosen topic. It includes primary and secondary methods of data collection. In present research, both sources are used for collecting information.
Step 6: Data analysing
After collecting the data from primary and secondary sources, at this stage, critical discussion is made from researchers' point of view. This would help in analyzing data more precisely.
Step 7: Drawing discussion and recommendation
It is the main stage of research, where discussion about key findings has made. Furthermore, on the basis of discussion, recommendation has provided to M&S for improving its corporate-governance practices.
Step 8: Edit as per client feedback
After completing the research, some modification can be done in research as per client requirement for improving its efficiencies and meeting their criteria.
Step 9: Final submission
Here, final project needs to be submitted after completion of above stages.
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