This sample will let you know about
 What is Inferential Statistics?
 Explain difference between descriptive & inferential statistics.
 Explain the assumptions of parametric.
INTRODUCTION
Statistical analysis is used to arrange data or produce some results which helps for the further analysis or formulate strategies accordingly (Cooper and Sommer, 2018). There are various tools and techniques which is used by the individuals to find accurate results and modify data as per the requirement. This project cover the various types of statistical methodologies and done different types of test as per the requirement of data.
Explain difference between descriptive & inferential statistics along with suitable example and explain why they constitute descriptive / inferential statistics
Descriptive statistics: In this method, data used to summarise on the graph and this process allow to understand the set of observation. It describes the data such as sample that is very common and they does not have uncertainly because large population data not used. There are some common tools which is used in the descriptive statistics such as central tendency, dispersion, skewness etc. Get Assignment Examples.Talk to our Experts!
For example: We collect 30 sample that is test score of students and calculate the summary statistics to produce graph.
As per the results, mean of the total score class is 79.18, range 66.21 to 96.53 and test accepting more than 70 score (Example of Descriptive Statistics, 2020). Data represent that 86.7 % of students have acceptable scores because they secure more than 70 marks in the test.
statistics: This data collected from huge sample such as larger population because the aim of inferential statistics is to draw conclusions from sample of large population. There is various methodology used to calculate inferential statistics such as hypothesis tests, confidence intervals, and regression analysis (Galli, 2018).
For example: Assume that we collecting test score 100 students but they are not from the same class and they randomly collect sample. After that calculate all the required information such as mean, median, range etc. In this method, data collected from large sample and provide final conclusion on the basis of random selection of sample.
It is very difficult to say that which statistical method is better because use of both methodologies based on the types of data. Descriptive statistics is the most suitable approach because it provides accuracy and the other hand, in order to solve complex data which, affect large population than use inferential statistics.
Explain the assumption of sphericity and evaluate their own research scenario for the assumption, also identify that how these assumption is similar or different from homogeneity of variance assumption
Sphericity is the assumption of repetitive measures of ANOVA but there are various conditions such as:
 All the independent variables should be equal
 Difference between combinations of the conditions are equal.
 If sphericity is desecrated, then variance calculations may be distorted.
Sphericity refer to the equality of variances that is repeated measures ANOVA and it also measure the homogeneity of the variances. It is quite similar to the homogeneity of variant among the groups where ANOVA is univariate. This is denoted with this “ε” symbol refer to the “circularity”.
Homogeneity of variance assumption implicit F test or T test from the population variances where more than two sample consider equal. There is some assumption which mentioned below:
Ttest and ANOVA required independent samples where each group comparison will be done with the same variance (Kerzner, 2018).
 T test and ANOVA use the independent samples as per the t test or F test statistics.
Explain the differences between oneway and twoway experimental designs along with suitable example and also define the twoway design advantages
Oneway experimental design means oneway ANOVA and it is the statistical test which is used to compare variance within sample and include the independent factor or variance. It is a hypothesis based test and its aims to measure the multiple reciprocally exclusive theories regarding collected data.
For example: Group of randomly selected individual data divide into multiple small groups and perform different task. So in this case, individual learn the effect of tea and how it helps in weight loss such as green tea, black tea or no tea.Want to get Assignment help? Talk Our Expert Now!
Twoway experimental design called twoway ANOVA, where in oneway independent variable affecting dependent variable. In the tow way, there are two independent variable affect the other factors. If any research has quantitative results than two collection instructive variables available than implement twoway ANOVA.
For example If individual wanted to find interaction among income and gender for emotion level at job interviews. So emotional level of an individual is the actual outcome and the other side factor can be measured. There are two factors identified such as income & gender and consider as variables. Both factors are independent variables and it can say that Two Way ANOVA.
 Twoway experimental design is more cost effective in comparison to oneway design.
 It helps in analysing the interaction among two factors.
 It helps in understanding the combination of different factors and how they influence the behaviour.
 Twoway ANOVA allow to analyse synergistic effects among two different independent variables on dependent variable.
Explain the assumptions of parametric and provide a suitable example for this
Parametric term refers to the statistics which is the procedure of hypothesis testing and this test based on the various assumptions which is collected with the help of observations of data. At the time of conduction parametric test, research need to ensure that all the assumptions should be fulfilled such as:
 Normal distribution of data where value of p depends upon normal sampling distribution.
Homogeneity of variance mean data need to be similar throughout the sample (Brookes, N., Butler, Dey and Clark, 2014).
 Data should be independent from each other’s.
Conduct a series of test or compare two groups of participants
(a) Levene's test is being used for testing of “K” samples which have equal variances. In the aspect of comparison of cognitive ability score of two groups, this can be find out that Levene's test is 0.02. In these two groups' cognitive score data, this can be find out that there is no variability. It is so because for variability between the data set of two groups, the Levene's test should be of 0.05. For this purpose, Ttest can be used in order to find out variables between these two groups of offender and non offender.
(b) The KolmogorovSmirnov test is used to find out distinction between the empirical distribution functioning of sample and cumulative distribution function of reference distribution of two different samples. In the sense of test of two groups, this can be find out that value is 0.3 which shows that there is no variability in the data set of neuroticism scores. Apart from the KolmogorovSmirnov test, there is an another alternative which may be used for finding variances. The another test can be Chisquare test that will be suitable.
(c) In order to find out association between gender of participants and crime history, the suitable test will be correlation test. It is a type of test which is applied in order to evaluate association between two or more variables. This test is done on the basis of two methods which are Pearson correlation and parametric correlation test. In regards to find out relation between gender and crime history, the parametric correlation test will be suitable. As well as interpretation of this correlation can be done in accordance of calculated value of data. The reason of applying this test is that it can make best relation between two set of variables. As well as there is not any other test that can be applied instead of correlation test.
(d) For making comparison between to data set, one of the best test is T – test which makes better outcome. In the context of making comparison of offenders' anxiety score pre and post counselling, this test will be suitable. As well as under descriptive statistics calculation of mean will be suitable.
(e) In order to do test of interaction between gender's with pre and post counselling depression score, best test will be linear regression. It is so because by help of this users can find out each variables relation with another group's variable (Brocke and Lippe, 2015).
(f) For finding impact of age on anxiety scores, the best suitable test is Chisquare test. In the case when test will produce value of 0.14 then it can be concluded that there will be a variable. In addition, age group of 2640 will be variable.
Calculation
Depression score of ten participants:
Serial number 
Depression score 
1 
12 
2 
6 
3 
1 
4 
5 
5 
8 
6 
6 
7 
8 
8 
15 
9 
6 
10 
14 
 Mean= Σx/N
Depression score 
12 
6 
1 
5 
8 
6 
8 
15 
6 
14 
Total= 90 
Mean= 90/10
9
Standard deviation= ∑(x−x¯)²/N−1
x 
x¯ 
(xx¯) 
(x−x¯)² 
12 
9 
3 
9 
6 
9 
3 
9 
1 
9 
8 
64 
5 
9 
4 
16 
8 
9 
1 
1 
6 
9 
3 
9 
8 
9 
1 
1 
15 
9 
6 
36 
6 
9 
3 
9 
14 
9 
5 
25 



179 
Standard deviation= 179/(101)
= 179/9
= 19.88
 Range= Higher valueminimum value
Higher value= 15
Minimum value= 1
Range= 151
= 14
 Explanation of what result means:
Mean On the basis of data of depression score of ten respondents, this can be find out that value of mean is of 9. This is so because total score of depression is of 90 and number of respondents are 10.
Standard deviation As per the value of mean, further standard deviation is calculated that is of 19.88.
Range The range is difference between higher and lower values. In the aspect of above data set, higher value is of 15 and lower value is of 1. Thus, the range is 14.
Appropriate statistical test determines whether male or female participants are more depressed
In order to determine the relationship among the variable i.e gender and depression liner regression statistical test have been performed. The results are listed below:
Descriptive Statistics 


Mean 
Std. Deviation 
N 
Gender 
1.4625 
.50174 
80 
Depression score (possible range 021) 
8.7000 
4.50148 
80 
Model Summary^{b} 

Model 
R 
R Square 
Adjusted R Square 
Std. Error of the Estimate 
1 
.100^{a} 
.010 
.003 
.50240 
a. Predictors: (Constant), Depression score (possible range 021) 

b. Dependent Variable: Gender 
ANOVA^{a} 

Model 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

1 
Regression 
.200 
1 
.200 
.793 
.376^{b} 
Residual 
19.687 
78 
.252 



Total 
19.887 
79 




a. Dependent Variable: Gender 

b. Predictors: (Constant), Depression score (possible range 021) 
Coefficients^{a} 

Model 
Unstandardized Coefficients 
Standardized Coefficients 
t 
Sig. 

B 
Std. Error 
Beta 

1 
(Constant) 
1.560 
.123 

12.698 
.000 
Depression score (possible range 021) 
.011 
.013 
.100 
.891 
.376 

a. Dependent Variable: Gender 
The first table shows the results of R and R^{2 }in which r is simple correlation that is 0.100 and R2 display the total fluctuation in dependent variables which is 10% that is not very large. The next table is theANOVAtable, which reports how well the regression equation fits the data. this also support to discuss the prediction of dependent variable in meaningful manner. Thus, from the table p =0.376 which is greater that the standard value of 0.05. TheCoefficientstable provides the necessary information to predict the depression level from the gender variable and also display the gender contribution statistically significantly to the model by considering sig value which is 0.376. Take Management Assignment Help from professional experts!
Appropriate statistical test to determine whether participants’ socioeconomic status impacts on their anxiety scores.
Chi square test is considering to be an effective statistical test which support to define the
socioeconomic status impacts on their anxiety scores.
Case Processing Summary 


Cases 

Valid 
Missing 
Total 

N 
Percent 
N 
Percent 
N 
Percent 

Low, medium or high socioeconomic status * Anxiety score (possible range 021) 
80 
100.0% 
0 
0.0% 
80 
100.0% 
Low, medium or high socioeconomic status * Anxiety score (possible range 021) Crosstabulation 


Anxiety score (possible range 021) 
Total 

2.00 
3.00 
4.00 
5.00 
6.00 
7.00 
8.00 
9.00 
10.00 
11.00 
12.00 
13.00 
14.00 
15.00 
16.00 
18.00 


Low, medium or high socioeconomic status 
low 
Count 
0 
0 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
3 
2 
2 
4 
2 
2 
2 
0 
1 
26 

Expected Count 
.7 
.7 
.7 
1.6 
2.0 
2.0 
1.3 
2.3 
1.6 
1.6 
3.9 
1.6 
2.6 
2.0 
1.0 
.7 
26.0 

medium 
Count 
1 
0 
0 
1 
1 
2 
1 
4 
2 
2 
4 
0 
4 
0 
3 
0 
25 

Expected Count 
.6 
.6 
.6 
1.6 
1.9 
1.9 
1.3 
2.2 
1.6 
1.6 
3.8 
1.6 
2.5 
1.9 
.9 
.6 
25.0 

high 
Count 
1 
2 
1 
2 
3 
3 
1 
0 
1 
1 
4 
3 
2 
4 
0 
1 
29 

Expected Count 
.7 
.7 
.7 
1.8 
2.2 
2.2 
1.5 
2.5 
1.8 
1.8 
4.4 
1.8 
2.9 
2.2 
1.1 
.7 
29.0 

Total 
Count 
2 
2 
2 
5 
6 
6 
4 
7 
5 
5 
12 
5 
8 
6 
3 
2 
80 

Expected Count 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
5.0 
6.0 
6.0 
4.0 
7.0 
5.0 
5.0 
12.0 
5.0 
8.0 
6.0 
3.0 
2.0 
80.0 

Test Statistics 


Low, medium or high socioeconomic status 
Anxiety score (possible range 021) 
ChiSquare 
.325a 
21.200b 
df 
2 
15 
Asymp. Sig. 
.850 
.131 
a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 26.7. 

b. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 5.0. 
Appropriate statistical test to determine whether participants’ depression and anxiety scores significantly differ.
To determine the whether applicant’s depression score and anxiety significantly differ from each other compare mean statistical test is used. The results are as follows:
Case Processing Summary 



Cases 


Included 
Excluded 
Total 


N 
Percent 
N 
Percent 
N 
Percent 


Depression score (possible range 021) * Anxiety score (possible range 021) 
80 
100.0% 
0 
0.0% 
80 
100.0% 


ANOVA Table 


Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

Depression score (possible range 021) * Anxiety score (possible range 021) 
Between Groups 
(Combined) 
825.627 
15 
55.042 
4.544 
.000 

Within Groups 
775.173 
64 
12.112 



Total 
1600.800 
79 




Measures of Association 


Eta 
Eta Squared 
Depression score (possible range 021) * Anxiety score (possible range 021) 
.718 
.516 
Design of a question to the study
A) Research question
What is the relation between depression level and the Diagnosed with Chronic Pain?
This is important to determine that in what age mostly people suffer from these long lasting diagnosed pain.
B) Statistical tests
To figure out the relationship between the depression level and the level of Diagnosed with Chronic Pain correlation test is analysed which help to define the most significant values (Crawford, Langston, and Bajracharya, 2013). That can be seen from the results mention below:
Descriptive Statistics 


Mean 
Std. Deviation 
N 
Diagnosed with a chronic pain disorder 
1.5375 
.50174 
80 
Depression score (possible range 021) 
8.7000 
4.50148 
80 
Correlations 


Diagnosed with a chronic pain disorder 
Depression score (possible range 021) 

Diagnosed with a chronic pain disorder 
Pearson Correlation 
1 
.292^{**} 
Sig. (2tailed) 

.009 

N 
80 
80 

Depression score (possible range 021) 
Pearson Correlation 
.292^{**} 
1 
Sig. (2tailed) 
.009 


N 
80 
80 

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2tailed). 
C) From the results above, it has been stated that value of diagnosed with pain disorder is of 1 and possible score for depression is of 292. The significance level the correlation between depression level and diagnosed with chronic pain is 0.09 which is lower than standard level.
D) The variable which is selected for the study is stress level of participants. The 2 * 2 factorial presentation is as follows:
2*2 factorial 

IV1: Age below 25 
IV1: Age over 25 

Stress 
IV2: High stress 
dv: 15% 
dv: 85% 
IV2: Low stress 
dv: 85% 
dv: 15% 
CONCLUSION
On the basis of above project report this can be concluded that there are different types of tests under SPSS. In the project different sort of tests are applied such as T test, chisquare test and many more. As well as descriptive analysis is also done including mean, standard deviation
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