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Financial Analysis and its Importance

University: Coventry University

  • Unit No: 13
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 15 / Words 3789
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: 216MANSC/216MANEL
  • Downloads: 378

Table of Content

  1. Conclusion
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • Discuss Financial Analysis.
  • Discuss the importance of project management.
Answer :
Organization Selected : Imperial brand plc

Financial management is a key aspect for companies in order to make effective utilisation of available financial resources. There are different types of techniques and methods which are used for making analysis of financial performance of companies (Wei, Wang,  Leng and Ji, 2013). The objective of project report is analysing financial condition of UK based company that is Imperial brand plc. This company is involved in process of manufacturing tobacco products whose headquarter is in Bristol, United Kingdom. The project report covers detailed information about evaluation of different types of ratios to assess financial performance as well as role of financial information is interpreted to take crucial decisions. The end part of report covers information regards to key strategic steps that are needed to be taken by chosen company.

Analysis of financial performance of chosen organisation:

In accordance of given task of the project report, financial analysis of Imperial brand plc is required to be done by help of different types of ratios. As well as some ratios are targeted to a particular external stakeholder that is investors who invest fund in company as per the financial condition. Herein, underneath financial analysis of above company has been done in such manner that is as follows:

  1. Profitability ratio -

    This can be defined as a type of ratio that is calculated by companies in order to know about level of profitability during a particular accounting period (Julien, 2013). Under it, different types of ratios are included and some of them are mentioned below in regards to chosen company:
  • Gross profit ratio - Gross profit / net sales * 100

Year

2017

2018

2019

Gross profit

6427

6450

6240

Net sales

30247

30524

31594

Gross profit ratio (in %)

21.25

21.13

19.75

Analysis- On the basis of above prepared column chart, this can be find out that gross profit margin of above company has been decreased in a significant manner during three years. Such as in year 2017, the gross profit ratio was of 21.25% which reduced and became of 21.13% in year 2018. Same as in year 2019 also it decreased till 19.75%. This is indicating that company is unable to generate higher profit after deducting cost of sales from revenues. Get Assignment Examples.Talk to our Experts!

  • Operating profit margin - Operating profit / net sales *100

Year

2017

2018

2019

Operating profit

2669

2713

2492

Net sales

30247

30524

31594

Operating profit ratio (in %)

8.82

8.89

7.89

Analysis - In accordance of above prepared column chart of operating margin, this can be find out that in current year 2019, company's performance is weaker as compared to past years. Like in year 2017, the operating margin was of 8.82% that increased by a little margin and became of 8.89%. While in next year 2019, it reduced and became of 7.89%. This is showing that company is unable to manage their operating expenses and that is why their operating margin is lower.

  • Net profit margin = Net profit / Net sales*100

Year

2017

2018

2019

Net profit

1409

1368

1010

Net sales

30247

30524

31594

Net profit ratio (in %)

4.66

4.48

3.20

Analysis - Same as the above mentioned profitability ratios, this ratio is also weaker in last two years. It is so because in year 2017, the net profit margin was of 4.66% which reduced and became of 4.48% in year 2018. Same as in next year also, it decreased and became of 3.20%. It is showing that company's efficiency to generate net income on overall expenses is lower. Due to which investor may ignore this company to do further investment. Order assignment help from our experts!

  1. Liquidity ratio - 

    It can be characterised as a form of ratio that is calculated by companies in order to know level of liquidity (Delen, Kuzey and Uyar, 2013). The objective of calculating this ratio is to assess availability of cash position to make payment of short term debts. Under this, different types of ratios are included and some of them are mentioned below in such manner:
  • Current ratio = Current assets / current liabilities

Year

2017

2018

2019

Current assets

6896

7253

11088

Current liabilities

10878

11237

12382

Current ratio (in times)

0.63

0.65

0.90

Analysis - The current ratio of companies is considered best when they have two times of assets to make payment of one times of liabilities. In the context of above company's current ratio, it can be find out that their ratio is improving effectively in all three years such as in year 2017, it was of 0.63 times which increased by a little margin and became of 0.65 times. Same as in year 2019, it increased by 38.46% and became of 0.90 times. In all three years, company's current ratio was lower than ideal ratio.

  • Quick ratio = Quick assets / current liabilities

Year

2017

2018

2019

Quick assets

3292

3561

6855

Current liabilities

10878

11237

12382

Quick ratio (in times)

0.30

0.32

0.55

Analysis - The ideal quick ratio is considered as 1.5:1 times which states that companies should have 1.5 times of assets in proportion to 1 times of liability. In the context of above company, this can be find out that their quick ratio is increasing with slower pace in all three years. Like in year 2017, it was of 0.3 times that raised by a little margin and became of 0.32 times. As well as in year 2019 also it raised and became of 0.55 times. Though, in all three years' company's quick ratio is below ideal ratio. It is indicating that company do not have enough amount of quick assets to pay current liabilities.

  1. Investors ratio - 

    This is defined as a type of ratio which is so beneficial for investors. It is so because by help of this ratio, they can become aware about efficiency of generating return of a company (Leufvén and Eriksson, 2016). Under this ratio, a wide range of ratios are included and some of them are mentioned in such manner:
  • Return on assets = Net income / Total assets

Year

2017

2018

2019

   

Net income

1409

1368

1010

   

Total assets

30990

30848

33730

   

Return on assets

0.05

0.04

0.03

   

Analysis - This ratio shows efficiency of a company to generate return on assets. On the basis of above presented column chart of above company, this can be find out that theur efficiency to produce return on available assets is decreasing in all three years. Like in year 2017, this was of 0.05 that reduced in next two years 2018 and 2019 till 0.04 and 0.03. This is so because of lack of management of assets.

  • Dividend pay-out ratio = Dividend paid / net income

Year

2017

2018

2019

   

Dividend paid

1528

1676

1844

   

Net income

1409

1368

1010

   

Dividend paid ratio

1.08

1.23

1.83

   

Analysis - This ratio shows about efficiency of a company in order to provide dividend to shareholders. If this ratio is higher than it is considered that company's stakeholders are getting a good amount of dividend. In the context of above mentioned company, it can be find out that they are paying higher amount of dividend to their shareholders. Such as in year 2017, this ratio was of 1.08 that raised and became of 1.23 in year 2018. Same as in year 2019, it increased till 1.83. This analysis of dividend pay-out ratio is showing that company is paying good amount of dividend to their shareholders.

  • Return on equity = Net income/ stakeholders' equity

Year

2017

2018

2019

Net income

1409

1368

1010

Stakeholders' equity

5684

5770

4937

Return on equity

0.25

0.24

0.20

       

Analysis - On the basis of above presented column chart of this company, it can be find out that their efficiency to pay return on the equity is lower in all three years as well as this is decreasing also. Such as in year 2017, it was of 0.25 which reduced and became of 0.24 in year 2018. As well as in year 2019, it became of 0.20. Thus, this company is not paying higher amount of return on the equity. The reason of this lower performance is that their net profit is decreasing in three years with a significant amount.

  • Debt to equity ratio = Total liabilities/ Total stakeholders' equity

Year

2017

2018

2019

Total liabilities

25306

25078

28793

Stakeholders' equity

5684

5770

4937

Debt to equity ratio

4.45

4.35

5.83

Analysis - The ideal debt to equity ratio is between 1 to 1.5. If a company's ratio is too much higher than it indicates that they are not able to repay their debts. While if this ratio is lower than it signs that company is not relay on borrowings. In the aspect of above company, this can be find out that their debt to equity ratio is too higher as compared to ideal ratio. Such as in year 2017, it was of 4.45 which reduced in next year and became of 4.35. On the other hand, in next year it raised and became of 5.83. The reason of this lower performance is that they have huge amount of debts but do not have enough amount of equities.

  1. Efficiency ratio - 

    It is a type of ratio that is calculated by companies in order to know efficiency of a company in different aspects. under this ratio is computed by covering all elements (Nair, Alzqhoul and Guillemin, 2014). Herein, underneath some types of ratios are mentioned in regards to above mentioned company that are as follows:
  • Inventory turnover ratio = cost of goods sold/ inventory

Year

2017

2018

2019

Cost of goods sold

23820

24074

25354

Inventory

3604

3692

4082

Inventory turnover ratio (in times)

6.61

6.52

6.21

Analysis - It is a type of ratio which shows efficiency of a company in order to manage their inventories. Under this, if ratio is higher than it is considered that company is effectively managing their stock. In the aspect of above company, it can be find out that their ratio is higher in year 2017, after that it is decreasing. Such as in year 2018, it was of 6.52 times which reduced and became of 6.21 times. It is showing that efficiency of company is decreasing.

  • Accounts receivable turnover = Revenue/ accounts receivable

Year

2017

2018

2019

Revenue

30247

30524

31594

Accounts receivable

2308

2309

2527

Accounts receivable turnover (in times)

13.11

13.22

12.50

Analysis - If A/R turnover ratio is higher than it shows that company is taking less time period in order to collect debt amount. In the context of above company, this can be find out that their performance was better in year 2018 as their ratio was higher among all three years. Like in year 2018, it was of 13.22 times which reduced and became of 12.5 times.

  • Accounts payable turnover = Cost of sales/ accounts payable

Year

2017

2018

2019

Cost of goods sold

23820

24074

25354

Accounts payable

1245

1198

1775

Accounts payable turnover (in times)

19.13

20.10

14.28

Analysis - Based on the chart above, it can be seen that firm's accounts payable turnover ratio is variable over all three years. It was of 19.13 times, like in 2017, that varied in the coming years. High turnover ratio shows the company can make the payment in much less period. Therefore, the company's performance was better in 2018 for all three years.

  • Total assets turnover = Revenue/ total assets

Year

2017

2018

2019

 

Revenue

30247

30524

31594

 

Total assets

30990

30848

33730

 

Total assets turnover (in times)

0.98

0.99

0.94

 

Analysis - The chart described above displays that the Imperial brand plc is not able to efficiently control its total assets. This ratio was 0.98 times similar in the years 2017 that raised in next year and became of 0.99 times. The high turnover ratio in 2018 was 0.99 times, indicating that the business used its total assets successfully this year.

  • Fixed assets turnover ratio = Revenue/ fixed assets

Year

2017

2018

2019

Revenue

30247

30524

31594

Fixed assets

24094

23595

22642

Fixed assets turnover (in times)

1.26

1.29

1.40

Analysis - The chart above demonstrates that the firm is able to effectively manage its fixed assets. That ratio was 1.26 times and 1.29 times in 2017 and 2018. The high turnover ratio in 2018 was 1.24 times, which suggests that this year the business used its fixed assets efficiently.

Three key decisions which above company should take on the basis of above analysis:

  •  The efficiency ratios of the organization show poor results that mean that they cannot optimize the use of resources that are available. They must seek productive inner approaches so that they can raise their assets and inventory turnover ratios. The managers of company, should focus on those aspects which are resulting in lower performance.
  •  The liquidity position of the above-mentioned organization is not so efficient over all three years and should seek to reduce its quick-term debts in order to enhance liquidity condition. This can become possible only if they will not relay on debts. As well as company's finance department should be focused on increasing value of current assets.
  • Another key strategic decision which above company should take is that focusing on reduction of expenses so that their level of profitability can be increase. If they will do so then their expenses will be under control. For this purpose, they may apply cost accounting method. It is so because by help of this method, above company will be able to know reason of higher expenses and accordingly can reduce unwanted expenses.

So these are the key strategic decisions which are needed to be applied by above company in order to enhance their operations and activities. If they will do so then the causes which are resulting as negative performance will be minimised. Though, their overall performance is average. As well as investors will be satisfied with their financial condition. This is so because investors ratio is showing positive result except some ratios. Struggling with your dissertation, get phd dissertation help from our experts!

Conclusion

On the basis of above project report it has been articulated that financial management is one of the key aspect for all types of companies. The report is based on financial analysis of chosen business entity and for this purpose various a range of ratios are calculated of different aspects. Such as profitability ratio, investors ratio, efficiency ratio etc. On the basis of analysis of all ratios, it can be concluded that company's overall performance is average which needed to be enhanced. As well as the report is focused on an external stakeholder that is investors. The end part of report concludes about key strategic steps which are needed to be taken by above company in order to boost overall financial performance.

Also readProfessional Development and Situational Analysis

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