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Impact of Philosophies of Organizational Behavior

University: UK College Of Business and Computing

  • Unit No: 12
  • Level: Undergraduate/College
  • Pages: 16 / Words 3927
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: H/508/0525
  • Downloads: 26

INTRODUCTION

Organizational behavior refers to the group of management activities consisting of understanding, evaluating, and influencing the individual behavior in order to achieve the desired organizational objective (Carney, Cuddy, and Yap, 2015). It is considered as a most essential factor of an organization as it focuses on adjusting the behavior of employees up to level for achieving desire objectives. This report is about British Broadcasting Corporation which is a public service broadcaster or new channel and headquartered in London. It is the largest broadcaster of the world in terms of its employees. This project describes the impact of organizational culture and power & political behavior of managers over staff members. It also describes the impact of content and process motivational theory on employees' behavior and motivational role in achieving a firm's objective. In addition to this, it explains about types of team within BBC along with its importance in organization and use of tuck man model for developing an effective team. Further, it describes barriers to effective performance and the impact of philosophies of organizational behavior influence individual behavior positively as well as negatively.

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TASK 1

Analyse the influence of culture, politics, and power on the behavior of others in an organizational context

Organisational Culture is defined as the values and behaviours that contributes in social and psychological surrounding of enterprise. The culture of a company involves experiences, values, beliefs, philosophies and expectations of business. Handy culture typology is followed by BBC in order to ascertain distinct types of cultures.

According to Smith: Culture of BBC requires some changes in order to enhnace employee's performance and to retain them for long time period.

Handy's culture typology:

Charles Handy is the individual who propounded this model in which 4 types of culture is discussed that influence on behaviour of individiuals and organisation (Chumg and et. al., 2016). Different types of culture followed in BBC are defined below:

Power culture:

This culture depicts that power is held in hands of few people and its influence is spreaded in entire organisation. The authority to take all the decisions related to activities and functions of business is only possess by the individuals who have power. In BBC, this would give a negative impact as employees will be judged on the basis of their achievement and not their process of working. That would hinder their innovation and weaken their performances in long-term.

Role culture:

In this culture, rules and regulations required to be followed by every individual within organisation. Everyone in firm knows their duties. Power in this culture is ascertaing by position of individual in organisational structure. In BBC, this culture would prevent individuals and teams from risk-taking and hinder quick decision-making process, thus weaking the scope for growth.

Task culture:  

When teams are formed for addressing a specific issue, then task culture is exist. Task is crucial thing, therefore power will often shift depend on combination of team members as well as problem status. Team dynamics is the way through which task culture of company is identified (Coccia and Cadario, 2014). It impacts behaviour of teams and individuals negatively if team dynamics is ineffective as the ambiguous distribution of power might create differences between team members, resulting in failure in task completion. So, it is very essential in BBC to have right mix of personalities, skills, knowledge and leadership to be incredibly productive and creative.

Person culture:

In this culture of organisation, people see themselves as superior. Firm is highly rely on working of its employees. Company with personal culture is just a collection of people who happen to be work for similar organisation. It would create a negative impact on an organisation like BBC as the nature of its work requires individuals to work as a team to enhance its performance.

French and Raven's Power Types:

BBC applies French and Raven's power types to identify power's impact on an individual's behaviour. The power, under this is divided into several parts which are as follows:

Coercive Power:

This is based on coercion. In BBC, there are multiple powers which could be applied in a coercive manner like withholding rewards, threatening social exclusions through application of referent power (Coccia, 2014). It results in unhealthy working environment as it promotes dissatisfaction in individuals. This is used to threaten people within an organisation.

Reward Power:

It involves an employee's ability to delegate work. For managers in BBC, subordinates' better work are rewarded. However, when employees do not receive rewards, it affects their performances. A BBC manager can achieve it through giving bonuses, salary hikes, paid leaves, etc.

Legitimate Power:

This power provides capabilities to employees to feel accountable to the management. An important aspect of formal role of leadership is identified through rewarding and punishing the workers.

Referent Power:

It addresses management's power to manage acceptance and personal approval in employees. A leader tends to be more influential if he possesses this power. Responsibilities are heavy in this which affects behaviours of individuals directly.

Expert Power:

It addresses detailed information, knowledge and expertise. In this BBC, to fulfil organisational responsibilities and roles, the leader believe its own authority. It allows them to combine their reward power accurately.

BBC has experienced an impact in the organisation due to presence of power. Power in the company is used to increase productivity of the employees and is distributed keeping individual behaviour in mind. Power is delegated to leaders who are elected for a certain group and this post is rotated on periodic basis to facilitate indivualism and innovation in the way of working.

Political behavior of manager

Politics performed by managers in organisation is a rivalry between competing interested group and individuals for leadership, authority or power. These activities are generally performed to achieve some power or recognition at workplace. But it largely affect the behaviour of other staff members in organisation. In BBC, competition related to position, status is very high among employees which is the main reason behind politics in organisation. But this creates demotivation, dissatisfaction and jealousy among other staff members and according to which they exert their behaviour at their while working. This affects the overall performance of employees as well as BBC. Therefore, managers must focus on activities that support ion creating healthy political environment which contribute toward improving performance.

TASK2

Importance of content and process theories of motivation

Motivation means to encourage people for doing better performance for achieve goals and objectives of an organisation (Gold and et. al., 2013). Leaders motivate their team members to perform some action and give positive result and contribution in firm's success. Employees are motivated by salary, reward, promotion etc.

British Broadcasting Corporation is a mass media industry which depends on the performance of their employees. For providing better working environment, company has to focus on employee's motivation, growth opportunities and promotional activities of employees. This increases knowledge and skill of employees and and also enhance the goodwill of an enterprise. Theories of motivation can be divided into two parts:- Content theory and Process theory.

Content Theory:-

It is also known as need theory. It explains that desire of a person is changes according to time. It is a motivational factor for employees because it help to identify the need of a person and help to fulfil them. BBC use to apply this theory of motivation to enhance the productivity of individual or team members (Kazemipour and Mohd Amin, 2011). Maslow's need hierarchy theory is developed by Abraham Maslow. This theory consist five basic categories which includes Physiological Needs includes basic needs of a person which are food, shelter, water, clothes, air etc. These needs are essential for living an individual and also make a great impact over the behaviour of a person. Employees of BBC also want to get compensation which helps to fulfil their basic needs. By this, employees feel motivated and retain long time in firm and helps to achieve organisation's objectives. Safety and Security include the need of secure income, protection from any hazards, health and safety etc. BBC should provide their employees healthy working environment, job security and compensation for any losses. When employees know that their job is secure then they feel motivated which helps a firm to achieve success. Social Needs refers to the need of love and affection. People want to integrated in social groups and make friends in their community. BBC have to improve healthy and friendly working environment for increase motivation factor by which an individual or team members can work together with coordination and work to achieve a common objective. Self-Esteem Needs includes the need of attention, status, freedom, self respect etc. BBC should recognize opinion of their employees and give them promotion and reward as a motivation which helps to achieve the goal of a firm. Because motivated employees contribute their ideas and efforts to improve organisation's performance in upcoming years (Mester and et. al., 2018). Self-Actualisation Need include when need when an individual want to grow and improve his position. BBC should provide creative task, stimulating position and growth opportunities to their employees. This helps to motivate an individual and group to enhance their capacity to perform task and achieve success to an employees as well as organisation.

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Process Theory

This theory states that “HOW” motivation is occur and it focuses on psychological and behavioural process of motivation. It includes Vroom's Expectancy Theory which was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964. It explains that how an individual select a particular option from different options. It includes following three concepts:-

Expectancy

It explain that when employees want to get result then they should perform much better than others. BBC should identify the ability of employees and assign them different tasks and evaluate their performance. Rewards should be given to better performer to motivate them and encourage to do hard work with more efforts and help to achieve organisation's objectives.

Instrumentality

It is a link between action and result. In BBC, employees are motivated by getting rewards and promotion (Ormiston and Wong, 2013). So, Manager should fulfil their needs and give them intensive for complete targets.

Valence

It refers that a person give values to the rewards and perform their work more effectively and efficiently get positive result. Because reward work for them as a motivational factor. Motivated employee always help BBC to achieve their goals.

Techniques of Motivation

Following are the techniques of motivation that can be used to motivate employees at workplace and help a firm to accomplish target.:-

Financial Motivation

This technique help BBC to achieve their goals because as per content theory employees want to fulfil their needs. So, they need compensation in terms of finance which helps them to get motivation and perform task more effectively. It enhance the performance of an individual which help to increase overall performance of a company.

Non-Financial Motivation

BBC should motivate their employees not in terms of money but status, their participation in company, freedom and delegation of authority. Because every employee don't need money, some want respect and position. And these are their motivation factor which help a firm to get success as soon as possible. Maslow's Need Hierarchy and Vroom's Expectancy Theory are important to motivate employees and use their efforts to achieve organisation's objectives.

TASK 3

Identify and explain types of team

a) Different types of teams:

Teams can be categorised according to organisational target and goal. Teams are classified in many forms but “BBC” basically adopt only four types of team which are as follows:

Functional team, It is a group of individuals in which they expert in functional activity and target the objectives (Robbins and et. al., 2013). Functional team of BBC have a functional roles and responsibilities that is describes the activities and set of qualification and ability that are performed by this team. Resources are allotted to these functions within that team. Problem- solving teams, In BBC implanted problem solving team for solving the major issues and problems of the company. In this, group members are share their suggestion and offer ideas that how to business methods and process can be improved. This team formed only for limited period of time. In BBC, team solve the real-time problems of project. It is a absent link between learning and doing. Project team, In A project group is a group whose subordinates normally belong to various team, functions and are allotted to activities for the identical task. In BBC, projects groups are only used for a limited time of period. This group can be separated into sub-unit. When project is complete they are disbanded. Virtual team, In This team also knows as remote team or distributed team. BBC established this team for FAX, video, voice conferencing or email services (Shore and Wright, 2015). In this, team members work together from various geographical locations and communicate via technology. Teams brought jointly by telecommunication and information technologies to achieve organisational goal. Members of this group never meet face-to-face but communicate electronically. For such students, to take the burden of dissertation writing off their shoulders, we provide the best Programming Assignment Help at affordable prices.

Importance of team, BBC establish different types of good teams in their organisation for particular task or problem and improve process of organisation towards achieving the objectives because effective group activity creates natural process and combined outcome of the group is greater than the total of singles efforts. Individually complete the project is less effectively rather than in team because group complete the tasks effectively, efficiently and faster. Team work is also important for co-operation of team members (Suma and Lesha, 2013). They corporate together to reduce various task and work of all employees and share responsibilities and ideas with them. Which effectively influence the speed or efficiency of their output for completing the objectives.

Tuckman and Jensen's model of team, Bruce Tuckman innovate four phase or stages forming-storming-norming-performing in 1965. According to Bruce Tuckman, group can accomplish their objectives and targets successfully if they follow these stages in well manner. This model of team development provided overall growth of a team for the limited period of time. BBC use this theory or model in their company which are as under:-

Forming, Forming is a first stage in which team unit are formed and established. In this stage, BBC company assign work, communication channel, roles and responsibilities to the team members for achieving the target objectives. In this first phase group members are only focused on themselves. Storming, Storming is the second step of group development. Leaders of BBC create positivity and motivation in group members towards activities or work (Teh and Sun, 2012). In this phase, team members are start work with their members and learn about the each other's working style. Conflicts are arises among team members because all group persons have different different thoughts and working style. Norming, In this stage, leader increase co-ordination among team members and BBC company enter into a good working environment. Group members resolved the disagreements and take roles and responsibility. Performing, This is the last phase or stage of group development. In performing stage, the members of BBC company exactly know about their goals and objectives and totally well knowledgeable, motivated and passionate towards their work or performance for achieving the group objectives and targets. Adjourning: This is the break up group when task is completed successfully. When group is form to complete a specific project at workplace then after completion of that project group diminishes and every team members perform their own jobs.

Some other contributing factors, Apart from the above factors and theory here are some contributing factors also like- roles of leadership, communication, personality, goal clarity. These factors are as follows:-

Role of leadership, Roles of leadership are very important part of any team or group. Here are some roles of leader like coach potential, execute strategy, create vision and inspire trust. Communication factor, If leader's communication is strong then they can easily direct and lead the team members. Leader of BBC company have strong communication power who is easily control their team members and give direction them. Personality factor, In personalty factor include different type of personality like- conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion and openness to experience. Goal clarity, BBC company has their own vision and mission who is clear the company's goal and targets that what is achieve in future (Thomson and Van Niekerk, 2012). These above factors are used by BBC company for increase effective productivity and profit.

TASK 4

Use of concept theory for improving productivity

Path goal theory of leadership, Path goal theory is the effective and best theory of leadership for achieving the overall target of an organisation. This model or theory focused on leader's working style and behaviour. The leader of BBC company, has effective and good leadership behaviour which is fits in the environment of enterprise (Wong, Wong and Ngo, 2012). Empowerment, motivation and satisfaction can improve and increase the productivity of employees in a firm. This model based on expectancy theory (1964). Path goal model was introduce by Martin Evans (1970). This theory or model follow some important steps like choose a leadership style or behaviour, concentrate on motivational factors and identify the employee and environmental characteristics that will have the work succeed. This theory follows three basic steps which are as follows:-

Determining the characteristics of environment and employees, A manager must identify the characteristics of its employees as well as environment in order to motivate their workers accordingly. So that they can perform actions effectively as per the requirement of organisational environment.

Employees characteristic, For employee's batter productivity their major focus based on experience, skill and ability. Leader of BBC company is liable for identify the skills and qualities of workers for increase maximum output of them. Task and environmental characteristics, In this involves formal authority system, design of the task and work group. Select an appropriate leadership style, This step suggest that the leaders of BBC will change their style of leading according to the task and employees characteristics. This help in motivating employees to achieve their goals and objectives. It includes four types of leader behaviour directive, supportive, participative and achievement. Motivational factors that help in employee success, This step suggest that employees must be motivated in order to contribute their performance toward their success. Leaders of BBC must define the goals to their employees and actions to be taken to achieve their goals. They must also support them while they find difficulties in performing task and provide proper guidance. This help in motivating them and support in accomplishing their goals.

Leadership style, In this include various leadership behaviour and style which is use by leader for accomplish desired targets and goals in BBC company. There are many kind of leadership behaviour like autocratic style, transactional style and bureaucratic style which are as follows:-

Autocratic leadership style, In this mode leader control all group associate and rarely share powers with them. Transactional leadership, This leadership behaviour concentrate on group of firms. It called transactional because leader doing deal in group action with workers if any worker perform best then leader give reward that workers and punishing bad performers. Bureaucratic leadership, This leadership behaviour are implemented in highly regulated environments and in administrative where following of rules are very important.

Barriers of an Effective Performance, Performance management is a technique to analyse the performance of employees and increase productivity and profitability of a company. But there are some obstruction which affect the performance of British Broadcasting Corporation. These are mentioned below:-

Poor communication and feedback, This barrier impact on the performance of BBC because, for a better presentation there should be a proper communication between employer and employees. If there is no communication in organisation then it is difficult to pass ideas and orders to each other. Feedback is also very important to analyse and evaluate the performance but if there is a occurrence of barriers in feedback then company will not run for long time. Unclear Strategy, If there is no clear strategy, vision and mission of a company then employees can't concentrate on their work (Wood and et. al., 2012). Because they are not clear about goals and objectives of a firm. And this create a barrier of effective performance in British Broadcasting Corporation. Lack of Trust- Sometimes, employees don't trust on the work performed by employees and their ideas. It create difficulties for manager because employees are more skilled and talented and their suggestions are useful for the growth of an organisation. Due to lack of trust and respect employees are not perform their task in an effective and efficient manner. Culture and Climate- Environment of an organisation is very effective source for employees to perform their work. People are very sensitive about their culture and social norms. Before working in any firm they visit and analyse the behaviour of superior and group members and environment of company.Improper Structure- If the structure of a company is not properly formed then it should not be understand by their employees who work for British Broadcasting Corporation. It is a barrier for a business enterprise to perform effectively and efficiently. Lack of Proper Training and Development- Now a days, every company need skilled worker for better growth and success (Wood and et. al., 2012). But they don't provide their employees proper training which cause to barrier of an effective performance in BBC.

CONCLUSION

From the above given report it can be summarized that behaviour of an individual toward its job plays an essential role as it directly affect the performance of an organisation. So, organisation behaviour is one of the essential consider that must be focused by a company in order to achieve its desire result. A manager must apply several motivational theories in order to encourage their employees to work effectively and provide better result. These theories are Maslow's need hierarchical theory, which suggest that employees basic needs must be satisfied in order to keep them motivated toward their work. Apart from this Vroom expectancy theory can also be implemented in management practices that suggest that expectancy and promises of employees must be fulfilled in order to keep them satisfied with their job. This help in improving the overall performance of employees.

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