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Organisational Cultural

University: Mont Rose College of management & Sciences

  • Unit No: 12
  • Level: High school
  • Pages: 16 / Words 3925
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: H/508/0525
  • Downloads: 480
Question :

This sample will let you know about:

  • What is the 3 crucial elements of an organisation?
  • What is the difference between Effective team and Non Effective Team?
  • What is the Path Goal Theory which one is implemented by the organisation to deal with negative situations ?
Answer :
Organization Selected : ASDA

INTRODUCTION

Organisational behaviour is the study of individuals and group behaviour and tasks performed within the organisation with an aim to improve the productivity(Adebola 2019) It includes various aspects like perception, motivation, leadership and so on and it covers wide scope in today's life. The roles and responsibilities are well defined which increases the efficiency of the employees. By strategic planning, they can divide their work in according to their specialised skills.

ASDA is one of the renowned supermarket in UK which deals with various products like groceries, clothing, insurance and many more. The concerned firm also offers number of services such as financial services and its aim is to provide good quality products in order to satisfy the needs of customers. The report covers the culture, power and politics that influence the individual and the group's performance and it also comprises of theories and techniques of motivation which is very significant in an organisation(Richards and Sang 2019). It also includes the opposition of effective and non effective team and theories and philosophies of organisational behaviour.

P1 Organisation's culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance.

Organisational behaviour is the set pattern of all the responses and active interferences of working people towards the operations and management with a purpose to achieve the goals and objectives of an organisation (Blouin, 2019). Effective behavioural standards of organisation are tend to be followed by the working staff and other stakeholders of the company. It can be said as the maintaining of good behaviour between employer and employees is a crucial responsibility of the human resource department . The major aspects of pertaining healthy connections and effective behavioural structures within the confines of ASDA retail company are as follows :

Culture

All those beliefs, tradition and values that are followed particularly in the organisation are the components of its culture. The human resource management of organisation is responsible to promote that type of culture which enforces to the development of business and benefits of its people. According to Handy's Typology practice, there are basically four cultural aspects which affects the company and its environment (Chen, Jiao and Harrison, 2019).

Role culture

There is a pattern on organisational structures where each and every one is assigned to do the job according to their roles and responsibilities. The practice of this culture in ASDA can bring a lot of bureaucratic policies wherein the decision making process will be ineffective. While the performance standards will be increased due to specialisation with roles and responsibilities.

Task culture

The task environment focuses on forming teams in the organisation which is assigned to resolve the conflicts and critical errors with a vision to maintain the concord among the people. In case the task culture is executed by management of ASDA it would lead in the growth of healthy relations whereas it would also provide solutions for interpersonal issues of employees which will ultimately increase the employment satisfaction of the people.

Person culture

Within this culture each and every individual is prioritize, which results in negligence of team and group's objectives towards the firm. This is the existing organisational culture followed ASDA which effects the behaviour and working performance of employees as they are getting opportunities to prove themselves pertaining with responsibility and authorization.

Power culture

Here the culture can be understood as the process of centralising of powers. This means all of the decision in organisation are taken by top most authorized staff. Adaption of this culture in business, ASDA will fall short of achieving the organisational objective as the company's workforce will be separated into individuals from groups and teams.

On basis of above analysation, the role culture would be a suitable choice to change the existing culture of ASDA as it will increase the motivation and sense of coordination to give their maximum input for the organisational goals and objectives.

Politics

The practice of the extensive power distribution and managing resources within the organisation as well as to take certain decisions with power is termed as the politics. Organisational politics can be positive or negative (Nel, F. and Drevin, L., 2019). If ASDA applies positive politics it would enhance the productivity of the workforce and the organisational behaviour would become more effective and fair. On the other hand, negative politics in the work culture of ASDA would increase the conflicts among the work and employ dissatisfaction would also be aroused. In relation to this the people of the organisation would not be able to give their best as it would lack in attaining goals and objectives. ASDA should imply the principles of positive politics for the growth of every individual along with the organisation.

Power

Power can be defined a the authority to get the things done as per the will of oneself According to French & Raven,5 types of power elements are there, which are practised by top most managers. In relation to ASDA the major 5 powers are described as follows:-

Reward power: Under this power the deserving and potential employee is rewarded and recognised by the respective superior authorities. The use of this power emphasises on the positive and efficient development of a worker's behaviour.

Coercive power: This can be considered as the harsh authoritative power wherein warnings and other ethical forces are practised by leader to get the task completed by the assigned employee in given time period.

Legitimate power: Those power which are only used by the CEO and top most level authorities to pass any sort of decisions in organisation. This can be act as a negative force in the work system as the decisions are not taken by considering any situation or recognising the employee briefly.

Referent power: Reverence which is gained by a leader with the qualities of moderating organisational conditions, establishing strong interpersonal relations. This power can also be understand as a personal power where the power is used in more informal way to settle collaboration and projecting the influence, instead of giving formal orders and tasks.

Expert power: The expert power determines the specialised force to order for the completion of task in the respected area ofwork. This power brings more professionalism in the working environment of organisation.

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P2 Content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques for effective achievement of goals in an organisational context.

By the term 'motivation' it can be understood as a process that boost the morale and values of the other person. In relation to this, organisation applies certain techniques and principles to enhance the performance of its working people (Riggs,2019). An effective motivation among the organisational environment helps in attaining the overall individual as well as business goals and objectives along with the quality and standard time. This factor enforces to build strong and positive behaviour of organisation, which changes the responsive nature of the people towards the organisation. The basic two theories as content and process theories are needed to be followed by the management of ASDA are defined as below:-

Content Theory

ERG Theory of Motivation:

This theory is a part of needs theory of motivation. It was developed by Clayton Alderfer. ERG theory is moderate form of Maslow 's hierarchy of need theory. Just like Maslow describe the five stages of basic needs, Alderfer categorised these stages into three sections. These are existence, relatedness and growth. According to Alderfer, every manager needs to fulfils all of the three stated categorises employees in order to motivate them for improving their performance (Miao and et. al., 2019). In context of ASDA, its manager makes use of this theory to enhance performance of employees and retain them within the company for longer period of time. All three categories of this theory are mentioned as below:

Existence group: It is the first group of Alderfer's theory. In this group, the author considered all the basic psychological and safety needs. According to Alderfer, an individual gets motivated if all of their survival needs are fulfilled. It includes all the expenses related to their food, shelter, air, water, safety and securities (Jacobs and Manzi, 2019). The manager of the ASDA provides better work quality facilities, effective salaries, and accommodation to its workforce for the purpose of satisfying the needs of existence group.

Relatedness: It deals with human desire to satisfy social relationship and interpersonal relationship within the work environment. According to Alderfer, this need is not considered in basic needs but still it holds good command over motivation level of employees. Thus, it is essential for the manager to provides good working environment to their employees. If manager does not consider these needs then their will be chances of conflicts and miscommunication. The manager of the ASDA uses various policies to maintain strong work environment. For this purpose they emphasises on providing on few get together in the form of tours. They also makes use of various team building strategies for maintaining strong communication among employees.

Growth: It is the last stage of ERG model. This stage deals with personal growth, development of skills and capabilities of the individuals. As stated by Alderfer, individuals get bored by doing same kind of work at their workplace. This generally happens when these employees do not receive any appreciation or any rewards (Muchiri, Shahid, Cek and Eyupoglu, 2019). As a result, it develops feeling of dissatisfaction among employees. Thus, it is essential for the organisation to provide rewards and promotion to their employees for enhancing their interest in their work.

The manager of ASDA use this model to enhance the self motivation and esteem of employees. For this purpose they can start a programme where they give awards and appreciation certificate to those employees who give their best performance. They promote their employees and give them authority to take decisions, this will directly impact on employees of the company, they will feel motivated and work towards the attainment of organizational goals effectively.

Process Theory

Adam's Equity Theory:

John Stacy Adams, a great management specialist proposed the process theory which emphasises on 2 broad principles. First one is that it is necessary to maintain the equilibrium among inputs of efforts and outcome of work. The Second one is that the individual should have a spirit of equality among all the colleagues (Adebakin and Okon, 2019). Key elements of an information security culture in organisations. Information & Computer Security. The first theory concludes that the employees should maintain an effective balance between the carrying out of operations and their rewards with respect to each other, for an instance the working people in ASDA should have to be more diligent and perform above the standards to make the business more profitable. Because they are getting handsome rewards in place of doing such extra ordinary activities. With another aspect of this theory it stresses on the fair and equivalent comparison of all the employees according to given job and authority.

P3 Distinguish between Effective team and Non Effective Team

Team is a group of individuals who work together to achieve a goal effectively and efficiently (Carvalho and et. al., 2019) . It also allows individuals to work in a coordinated manner as the team leader assigned the task according to their skills. An effective team helps to make better decisions and solve the problem as it allow everyone to utilize their potential. The manager of ASDA has effective team as it focuses on achieving the objectives.

Basis

Effective team

Non Effective team

Goals

The goals are well defined in case of effective team.

The objectives are not clear among the team members.

Listening skills

The members listen to each other and their ideas are given due importance.

In this, members do not listen to each other and their ideas are ignored.

Cooperation

There is cooperation and working environment is good which bring unity of command.

There is no cooperation among the team members as few people tends to dominate the team.

Decision making

An action is made by taking appropriate decision.

As action decisions are not clear which create confusion and conflict among the team members.

Belbin Team Role Theory:

In this, the team leader behave differently while working with other people (Sendjaya and et. al., 2019). The successful company tends to be one who mix with different people which increases the efficiency of a team. ASDA is one of the largest retailer in UK which deals with groceries, clothing and insurance. In the context of ASDA, the team leader plays different roles to identify the strength and weakness of a team. There are various team roles like action oriented roles, people oriented and cerebral roles that are summarised below:

Plant: A plant is a great idea generator that help in making appropriate decisions and they are highly creative in nature who use their imagination in producing effective results. The main purpose of plant in context of ASDA is to solve the problems through strategic planning and provides the spark in work.

Resource Investigators: They are extroverts who have good communication skills and are ready to adapt the changes. Resource Investigator are natural who have good personalities, explore opportunities and develop contacts outside the organisation. They play effective role in ASDA which help to bring innovative ideas and also they get mix with others.

Monitor Evaluators: Monitor Evaluators are those who have good thinking ability and are judgemental in nature. One of the strength is that they are not affected by emotions or prejudice. This role would be allocated to team member of ASDA who think complex issues by taking all factors into consideration.

Coordinators: They are mature, confident and are very focused towards the goals. They are patience in nature who handle problems very calmly. This role would be assigned to the member of ASDA as they guides and motivates the team to achieves the objectives.

Shapers: They are challengeable people who are likely to push others into an action. Also, they make changes and are argumentive in nature. This role could be assigned to member of ASDA who provide motivation to achieve the task in a proper time.

Implementers: They are characterised by self control and ensure proper discipline and they tackle complex situations very easily and patiently. This role could be allotted to the member of ASDA who do hard work and turn ideas into well defined task.

Team workers: They are sociable and are diplomatic in nature. Thy motivates the team by maintaining informal communication between them and provides support to them. This role can be allocated to member of ASDA who can provide support to increase the morale of people. This bring harmony and positive environment among the group.

Completer Finishers: They are characterised by high degree of accuracy and complete their task in a efficient manner. They are considered introvert and are highly motivated as this role can be assigned to the member who can handle every problem consciously.

Specialists: These are individuals who pride themselves through specialised skills and technical knowledge. They are logical thinker and are subconscious towards their work as this role can be allocated to member of ASDA who are highly competent in their field of expertise.

Tuckman Team Development Theory

Tuckman's model states that as the team develops maturity and perform the task from the initial formation of the task till the completion of the project. They work hard to achieve the goals effectively and efficiently. There are four stages of Tuckman's model, namely, forming, storming, norming and performing. In the context of ASDA, these stages are summarised below:

Forming: In this, leader behaves differently and independently according to a situation and assign task. Their time is spent on proper planning and collecting information as the member of ASDA provides guidance and direction to them.

Storming: The team members focus on achieving goals by assigning tasks to individuals according to their specialised skills. In this stage, people have develop feeling of excitement, eagerness and positiveness. The leader of ASDA describe the different behaviour to the group and provide guidance to them of dealing with problems.

Norming: This is the third stage of Tuckman's model in which team members are dedicated towards their work for the accomplishment of goals. They are highly committed and are responsible that bring unity among them. The team of ASDA is engage in social work and are also aware of competition that has taken place so they prepare an appropriate strategy.

Performing: The team is clear about their objectives and vision so that it can achieve the task effectively and efficiently. Team of ASDA can itself adapt the changes and have a degree of autonomy that create positive working environment. They team members are highly motivated and knowledgeable which help them in decision making.

P4 Discuss various theories and philosophies of organisational behaviour

Organisation behaviour is the study of behaviour of individuals and their roles and responsibilities assigned according to their skills (Gilal and et. al., 2019). It ensure choosing the right people, organisation culture, norms that foster the productivity and quality. There are different philosophies of organisational behaviour that are explained below:

Path Goal Theory: In this theory, the leader provide guidance and support to group members by clarifying the path and removing obstacles to achieve the goal. The effectiveness of leadership is determined by employee motivation and their satisfaction level. In the context of ASDA, the leader behave differently depending on the nature and demand of a particular situation. The concerned firm can encourage employees by providing rewards for their superior performance so that they can contribute more towards the objectives. In the context of ASDA, the four leadership styles are summarised below:

Directive: Leaders discuss the work with subordinates of what is expected of them and provide direction so that they can achieve the task(Norton and et. al., 2018). It is task oriented style in which leader set performance standards and provide rewards to them. The leader of ASDA provides guidance to subordinates that how to achieve the targets and to create a positive environment and to build confidence among them.

Supportive: In this, leader shows concern towards their subordinates by creating positive environment. Leaders are friendly and do their best to make work pleasant among their followers and thus, they are highly motivated towards their work. The leader of ASDA is directed towards the needs of employees that increases their morale and trust and help to increase their confidence skills.

Participative: In this, leader consult the subordinates on important decisions related to work so that they feel that their presence is important. Also, leader share information and welcomes the ideas of subordinates as it encourage employees to participate in decision-making process. The leader of ASDA takes final decision by considering the opinions of employees. This improves the productivity and efficiency of employees.

Achievement oriented: The leader set challenging goals so that employees can do their best in a appropriate time. The leader of ASDA know that by providing proper guidance and rewards they could work beyond their potential. Thus, this help them to achieve the goals effectively and efficiently as it also builds the strength among the employees. Also, it helps them

Contingency Theory: In this theory, the leader assign the work among the subordinates according to their specialised skills so that they can work perfectly in a proper time(Fagan and et. al., 2018)). It is based on situational theory in which leader behave differently according to a situation. Leader motivates the followers to work hard so as to produce effective results. Thus, this increases the output and increases the performance of subordinates. The leader of ASDA applied this theory by setting targets to employees so that they can complete the task before the deadline of project. The leader should match the task provided to employees so that they can work with their best efforts.

Social Capital theory: Social Capital theory emphasise on social relationship that lead to the development of human capital (Harris 2019). It create a sense of belonging, norms, culture, trust and self confidence among the members of team if tasks are achieved in a effective manner. Cooperation plays a very important role in this theory as brings sense of accomplishment among the team members which bring strong sense of unity. The leader of ASDA focus on optimum utilization of resources and their aim is to ensure sustainable development which makes their products and services environment friendly.

Read Also :-Business Strategies and Environment

CONCLUSION

As per the information presented in the report above, it can be analysed that culture, power and politics are 3 crucial elements of an organisation. It is essential for an enterprise to ensure that positive culture, power and politics prevail within the confines of company so that employees can be motivated in an effective manner. Further, it is determined that corporations make use of content and process theories of motivation to boost the morale of employees and enhance their existent productivity. Apart from this, it is recognised that Belbin Team Role Theory and Tuckman Team Development theory are crucial in development of effective team for the accomplishment of business goals within due course of time (Adisa, Cooke and Iwowo, 2019). In addition to this, it has been acknowledged that Path Goal Theory consists of some leadership styles out of which one is implemented by the organisation to deal with negative situations prevailing within the premises.

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