Gastronomy refers to all those aspects which covers the relationship of food with culture. It is an art which undertakes preparation and serving delicate, appetizing and rich food to people along with the style of cooking of specific regions (Sánchez-Cañizares and López-Guzmán, 2012). The following assignment includes a critical discussion of globalisation and the aspects of heterogenisation and homogenisation in drink and food consumption and cultural identity. It also includes critical discussion on the importance of gastronomy in festivals and events.
Globalisation and the key underpinning aspects of homogenisation and heterogenisation in terms of cultural identity and food and drink consumption
Globalisation refers to procedure undertaking interaction as well as integration of people, communities and governments all over the world. It has one of the most prominent roles to play globally. It results in exchange of opinions, views and culture on a global scale. The main agenda of globalisation is to influence people to intermingle with various cultures, dialects and sectors that help them to glide smoothly socially while respecting the prestige and cultures of others.
Globalisation and Food Production, Distribution and Consumption:
The main impact of globalisation on various cultures is most evident when it comes to food production. Many developing countries like India, Vietnam and China are adopting foreign techniques and methods of production. Through globalisation and exchange of information about food practices of other countries have caused improvements in food production of other underdeveloped as well as developed countries. These changes have caused modernisation in agricultural practices (Dalby, 2013).
In terms of food distribution, there are still the industrial trends of the past that are being followed around the world. However, the impact of global trade has been significantly seen in the way food distribution is helping developing certain economics.
The most evident impact of globalisation has been seen in the food consumption patterns in the world. With availability of divers food products and changes in food preferences, there has been a substantial shift in the pattern of food consumption. With multinational supermarkets and fast-food chains around the world, there has been a substantial distribution and consumption of different cultural food in countries across the world. However, this has also risen the health issues, developments have been seen lately with the development and following of healthy food consumption habits in the people. People, on a global level, are integrating developing habits of healthy eating and food consumption (Gillespie and Cousins, 2012).
Cultural Globalisation: Homogenisation and Heterogenisation
Culture is one of the most important drivers of change in the world. With rise and emphasis given to globalisation there are main aspects of globalisation on culture which are discussed below:
It is a term used to describe the invasion and of one powerful culture and overtaking and eliminating local culture of a certain place. It refers to the dominance of one mighty culture that results in loss of religions and individual culture. In relation to food and drink consumption, one of the biggest examples is the fast-food industry. There has been a substantial overtaking and standardisation of food business in terms of preparation, pricing, purchasing and consumption. There is a negative perspective in individuals about homogenisation. Where culture is concerned, there have been terms given to cultural homogenisation, 'McDonaldization' and 'Coca-colonization' (Evidence Supporting Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cultural Marketing, 2018). These two aspects clearly define how these two world-renowned companies have influenced the food and drink consumption habits of individuals across the world.
This is the term used to describe multicultural societies where there is dissemination of regional cultures and its acceptance by various societies. This helps in enhancement of cultural diversity. The main agenda of heterogenisation is to facilitate the flow of global culture. The most evident example would be Asian countries like India, where there is a pool of various regional cultures and its importance can be seen in the regional food and drink distribution and consumption in various other parts of the country and beyond. Another example is the influence and acceptance of French food culture in Pondicherry, a city in the south of India. The food preparation as well as consumption habits are heavily influenced by that of French culture. With rise to globalization, there are adoption of food production methods in countries which are influenced by other cultures and the consumption too is being an evident element of the same.
Thus, it could be concluded that globalisation has its impact all over the world in terms of food production and distribution. The two aspects, homogenisation and heterogenisation, are playing important roles in covering the two facets of globalisation. With rise in cultural integration, globalisation will continue to foster the exchange of information, techniques and methods to improve and modify the lifestyle of consumers, particularly of food and drinks, all over the world.
Importance of Gastronomy to festivals and events
Role of Gastronomy for events and festivals
Gastronomy has a wide role when in festivals and events in various countries. Tourists from all over the world travel to various events and festivals to get familiar with foreign tastes and culinary preferences. This tradition in countries has been laid down for centuries now and there are large number of factors influencing this culture. With enhancement and facilitation of the science and art of good food, including cultural food, its history as well as culinary anthropology. There is a major role of gastronomy in festivals and events where others wants to participate in the food culture of the host country. This could be on the basis of preparation, display, tasting and its consumption. It helps tourists gain unique experiences and enhancements in their knowledge about the art of making, serving and eating food as per the culture of other countries (Hegarty, 2014).
Gastronomy during events and festivals enhances cultural integrity and enhancement of respect of various other diverse culture of the world. It is a way to learn methods of how the food is prepared and the accumulation of ingredients in preparing the food items. Gastronomy could also be used to widen the spectrum of cooking for individuals as well as groups and communities who seek different methods to cook diverse dishes.
Food and Drink Festivals and Events
There are various food and drink events and festivals that happen all around the world which has been major reasons of rise in gastronomy tourism around the world. It enhances cultural diversification and integration among peoples and communities (Ku, 2014). There are various food and drink festivals that have attracted maximum tourist attention round the years which are described below:
- Pizzafest: It is one of the most important festivals in the city of Naples for the celebration of the country's most popular food item, which is Pizza. The celebration goes on for almost a week and from all parts of the world, people gather to taste and learn the art of Pizza-Making through various workshops.
- Salon du Chocolat: Another important festival takes place during annual trade fair of internation chocolate industry. Almost 60 countries with 500 participants participate in the event where visitors could taste chocolates, attend various workshops and participate in different contests which allow them to expose themselves from the art of chocolate-making.
- Ottawa PoutineFest: In May, visitors from all over the world gather in Ottawa to celebrate the most prosperous local dish- Poutine which is made from cheese curds, spicy gravy and fries. This festival makes the visitors familiar with the dish and its exotic versions which is quite outstanding from a visitor's point of view.
Importance of using food to showcase the cultural identity of the destination
The above food festivals are few of many international events which showcase the importance of gastronomy in global context. Food and drinks used in these festivals tells visitors a lot about the cultural identity of a destination. There has been a significant passing of traditional cuisine of a country for generations. These festivals aim at exposing their culture to the rest of the world with food (Gigante, 2013).
For instance, Food festivals in China showcase their culture which facilitates 'harmony' as one of their major traits. This is reflected in their dishes where each flavour is perfectly blended and balanced in a way which makes it delicious and differ them from the other dishes across the world.
Another salient example is the food festivals of United States, where the culture is reflected on their process of preparation of food. It reflects the European colonization and European cooking styles and ingredients in their dishes. The influx, in the later parts of the 20th century made their dishes more diverse.
Involvement of Local Communities
Gastronomy not only open gateways for tourists and visitors, but are also an essential part for the local communities. The food festivals in the countries create a great opportunity for upcoming and promising brands. Setting up stalls in these festivals helps brands in generating income which foster their future growth and sustainability (Klosse, 2013). If their food is actually good, there are odds of them getting support from some important sponsor in achieving success.
Creation of own styles would allow the owners of the stall to get effectively promoted through word of mouth and even using other mediums like print and television media. Creating a new identity would help them establish a strong creative base that could be an opportunity for them in the long run.
With rise in social media, local communities could involve themselves in promotional and marketing activities alongside preparing and presenting their dish which would attract more gastronomy tourists from all over the world and create new opportunities for growth and expansion,
Gastronomy as a tool to create experiences
With enhancement in ease and convenience in travelling, gastronomy has been a vital tool to enhance the experience of travellers going to various places. Lately, tourism and gastronomy are closely linked. There are various arising tourist destinations that are being preferred from the quality of their local food. Gastronomy makes this experience better as it enhances the food experience the tourists by presenting them their special local food items to feast upon. At the time of festivals and events, gastronomy helps the attendees to witness the richness of culture and the food of countries which helps in diversification in preparation and serving food items. The potential tourists of these festivals and events are mentioned below:
- Travellers: These are the people present in the country at the time of these festivals. They attend these events with an agenda to enhance their travel experience and gaining more knowledge about the local food and culture.
- Gastronomy Tourists: These are the tourists that attend travel all the way to the host country especially to attend these festivals and events. They plan to explore the food and culture of various destinations across the world.
- Local Citizens: They are the forces behind making these events and festivals a success and are considered an important part of these gatherings. They contribute in setting up the events and festivals and take part in food preparation and various other activities important for enhancing the importance of these events.
It is thus concluded, that gastronomy is a very important element in exposure and integration of various cultures. Through enhanced globalisation, individuals are inclining upon getting familiar with diverse cultures worldwide. Gastronomy is very important in food festivals and cultures to help people identify the culture of host countries, helping the local communities to explore opportunities and creating spectacular experiences.
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- Ku, R.J.S., 2014. Dubious gastronomy: The cultural politics of eating Asian in the USA. University of Hawai'i Press.
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