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Inductive Vs.Deductive Research

Inductive V/S Deductive Research | Definition, Difference & Examples

19 Mar 2024


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Students working on academic papers, theses, and dissertations need to collect data by analyzing the relevant information. Moreover, for the research process, they use this approach to pick the right choice for their paper. But when they try to use this research strategies, they get confused because they see it as similar. In this case, they cannot identify the difference between inductive vs. deductive research. So, if you also face this issue and want to know the distinction between both terms, worry not! You have landed in the right place. 

In this blog, you will read mesmerizing insights about the overview, differences, examples, and more. So, stay connected till the end and gain knowledge through it. Proceeding on, let's understand the terms inductive vs. deductive research with examples. 

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An Overview of Inductive Reasoning with Examples

Before knowing about inductive vs. deductive research, it is crucial to get an overview and learn the meaning of both terms individually. If you get what it means, it will be easy to pick the right one for your study.

Inductive reasoning is the method of reasoning that involves gathering and analyzing data to develop theories, concepts, or hypotheses based on patterns and observations. This approach begins with a specific observation of the general theories and conclusions. Now, after knowing about the meaning, let's understand it with more clarity with the help of examples.

Example of Inductive Research

The group of four researchers conducted a study on men and boys and how they came to know about pregnancies. Moreover, for this, they conducted a study by selecting 50 candidates to gather data. Later on, they identified a pattern based on the observations. Based on this, the result came out that they found it by their mothers, and the research ended up on mothers playing a crucial role in developing boys' or men's knowledge.

Three Stages of Inductive Research 

Below are the three stages of inductive research that you must know about.

1. Data Collection

It involves collecting data from the field by using various techniques to identify patterns, themes, and categories. 

2. Pattern Recognition

In this stage, we recognize the patterns by looking at the collected data. So, find the trends and arrange them into sections to make ideas.

3. Theory Development

In the last stage, you are required to develop new ideas or hypotheses based on the themes or patterns. 

So, in this section, you have learned about the complete, brief overview of inductive reasoning with the help of examples and stages. In the next part, you will read about the insightful knowledge of deduction.

Read more - How to Create an Outline for a Dissertation? [Step-by-Step Guide]

An Overview of Deductive Reasoning with Examples

It is a type of research that starts with theory and seeks to test whether the study is supporting or rejecting. It begins with general theories and, in the end, a specific conclusion.

Let's look at the example to understand it more clearly:

Example of Deductive Research

A research study was conducted on the cancellation of cheap airlines. Later, a hypothesis was created that the passengers face such experiences 75% of the time. So, based on this, data was collected, and we got to know that 50% of the time, the train got canceled. The result was that the hypothesis constructed earlier was rejected.

Five Stages of Deductive Research

Below are the five stages of deductive research that you must know about.

1. Formulation of a Hypothesis

Firstly, we begin with developing a hypothesis. It happens mostly when it is built on prior research or theories that have already been studied. 

2. Design of the Research Study

Next comes research design to test the hypothesis. In this, we figure out what to measure and how to collect the data.

3. Collecting Data

Once the research design is finalized, it is time to use different methods, such as surveys, observational studies, and more, by using standard protocols. 

4. Analysis of Data

After collecting the data, the next step is to analyze it and look at whether the information gathered supports or rejects the hypothesis. 

5. Draw a Conclusion

The last step is to conclude whether the hypothesis is supported or not. If yes, then it can be used to make generalizations or to develop new ones.

We hope you have gained insightful knowledge by reading the overview of inductive and deductive reasoning with its examples and stages. However, if you still do not understand these terms or are stuck in between your papers without thinking twice, get assignment writing services assistance from the experts at Instant Assignment Help. Now, to gain more knowledge, reading the next section is crucial because in this we will explain to you about inductive vs. deductive reasoning.

Know About Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning

Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning

Students often get confused between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Moreover, they think that both are similar. So, let's understand and know how they differ from one another.

Inductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning

  • In inductive reasoning, it moves from specific observations to broader generalizations.
  • In deductive reasoning, it starts with a general statement and reaches a specific conclusion.
  • It involves moving from specific to general.
  • It involves moving from general to specific.
  •  If the premises are true, it still doesn't guarantee that the conclusion is true.
  • If the premises are true, then it is crucial for the conclusion to be correct.

We hope you have understood the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning. Now it is time to learn, with the help of examples, for better clarification of these terms. 

 Example of Inductive Reasoning:


Example 1

Example 2

Specific observation

My marks in maths were good last year.

The sun has risen in the west for the last two years.

Pattern Recognition

My marks in maths are good this year.

The sun will rise in the west this year.

General Conclusion

All marks in maths are good.

The sun always rises in the west.

Example of Deductive Reasoning:


Example 1

Example 2

Specific observation

All organisms are made-up of cells

All whales are mammals.

Pattern Recognition

Animals are organisms

All mammals have kidneys.

General Conclusion

Animals are made of cells

All whales have kidneys.

We hope our experts have assisted you with great learning on the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning. Moving ahead, let's clear up one more confusion that most scholars face difficulties in understanding. So, let's read about the distinction between inductive vs. deductive research approaches.

Difference Between Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches

Inductive vs Deductive Research Approaches

1. Attribute: Approach

Inductive Research: It uses the bottom-up approach. That is, first observe the data, followed by a pattern, then create a hypothesis and develop the theories. 

Deductive Research: It uses a top-down approach. In this, we first develop the theory, followed by a hypothesis, then a pattern, and in the end, we test it through observation.

2. Attribute: Theories

Inductive Research: The theories are made based on what and how has been seen. In this approach, ensure keep the aim by explaining it clearly so that it makes sense of the data.

Deductive Research: It aims to use real-world observations to check the theories or hypotheses. It depends on you whether to prove or disprove the hypothesis according to your study.

3. Attribute: Uses

Inductive Research: It is frequently used to learn the area of interest when existing knowledge about the subject is limited. With this, new ideas and theories can be generated easily.

Deductive Research: It is used when you want to test theories or hypotheses. For this, ensure to frame the research question.

4. Attribute: Format

Inductive Research: It is flexible and open to new ideas and information because it is resilient to changes in theories or hypotheses, according to the findings.

Deductive Research: It is structured and systematic because it uses established research designs and methods.

5. Attribute: Basis

Inductive Research: It relies more on qualitative analysis, which uses subjective judgment, like visual or textual analysis. It helps in finding the suitable themes and patterns in the data.

Deductive Research: It relies more on quantitative methods that use objective judgment, like numerical or statistical analysis. It helps to test and confirm the theories or hypotheses by using numbers.

Inductive or Deductive Research: Advantages and Disadvantages

Every research study has its benefits and drawbacks. The students must understand the strengths and weaknesses of the terms. It assists them in deciding what would be the best approach to use in the study. So, to understand this, our experts have discussed the advantages and disadvantages of inductive and deductive research approaches in pointers. So, have a look at the inductive research approach and get your mind clear to present an A+ study.

Advantages of an Inductive Research Approach

  1. It provides flexibility and helps capture the complexity of the real-world scenario.
  2. It assists in generating new ideas and theories.
  3. It allows to explore new information, ideas and perspectives.
  4. It is used for generating the theories and hypotheses.
  5. It can be helpful to study complex social phenomena.

Disadvantages of an Inductive Research Approach

  1. Findings may be subject to researcher bias.
  2. It may not be appropriate for experimenting with exact hypotheses.
  3. Establishing general patterns requires large sample sizes.
  4. It may not generalize to larger contexts or populations.
  5. While collecting data, it can be subject to errors or inconsistencies.

Now, we will discuss and learn about the advantages and disadvantages of the deductive research approach by reading the pointers discussed below:

Advantages of a Deductive Research Approach

  1. It allows for the testing of specific hypotheses. 
  2. It is well-suited to measure quantitative research. 
  3. It provides clear and structured research protocols.
  4. It can be used to confirm existing theories. 
  5. Its results can inform evidence-based practices. 

Disadvantages of a Deductive Research Approach

  1. It cannot capture the complexity of real-world phenomena.
  2. It is limited in exploring new ideas and perspectives.
  3. It requires prior knowledge or assumptions.
  4. It suffers from measurement errors or inaccuracies.
  5. It doesn't capture individual experiences.

We hope that you have understood the advantages and disadvantages of the inductive and deductive research approaches. However, if there are still any issues left, you can get academic writing services from our experts.

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Read more - What Is the Difference Between Dissertation and Thesis? | Learn from Experts

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