Construction Technology is a very prominent Civil Engineering branch and involves the study and application of various methods and technologies used in this aspect. This is an important aspect that are considered in this field undertakes management of infrastructures (Gao, Y and et. al., 2016). As per the current scenario, a five-storey Hotel Complex needs to be constructed near Heathrow Airport in London, UK. The report would constitute the terminology used in construction technology and different techniques used in construction of substructure and super structure. It also involves various infrastructure technology used in supporting buildings and supply and distribution of a range of building services.
Differences between residential, commercial and industrial buildings
There are various types of buildings constructed and used for different purposes. They are quite different in nature and have different agendas to fulfil. Their differences are described below:
These structures are constructed to accommodate families and provide people a place to live.
The purpose of construction of these buildings is primarily for commercial purposes, for instance, workplaces, stores, offices etc.
The construction of these buildings is to fulfil industrial purposes such as warehouses and buildings.
Depending upon the nature, the size varies from small individual homes to big apartments accommodating hundreds of people.
Commercial construction is quite large in size and requires more floor space, more square footage and larger beams.
The size of industrial buildings is huge for internal transportation of large equipments and for construction of multiple units depending on the companies.
Residential buildings are constructed using simple technology with general safety measures.
The concern at the time of construction of these buildings involve better safety measures for its long-term use.
Concern is mainly on functionality of the building to manufacture and distribute effectively.
Ways to promote sustainability in building projects
It is imperative that companies ensure the sustainability of their building structures so that these structures could promote better efficiency in serving their purpose. The building projects are required to be developed in a way that its effectiveness is enhanced. Ways in which sustainability of this complex could be promoted are described below:
- Effective Planning: This involves a detailed planning which includes selection of site, design and methods used to construct the structures. The agenda must be ensure a powerful structure that could accommodate as well as provide a place of work to people for long-term effectively.
- Advanced Technology: Efficient energy use enhances the sustainability for a way longer time period that previously intended. Technologies like self-healing concrete and aerogel insulations could be used to add years to the structures of building projects (10 futuristic technologies that are changing construction,2018).
- Construction Waste: Minimisation of waste incurred in construction must be the main agenda for construction. This is because the waste not only damages the environment. Reusable, durable and recyclable materials must be used and waste must be effectively segregated to avoid burden on the environment and the workers.
Application of terminologies used to construct the Hotel Complex
There are various terminologies used in construction technology which are necessary to be understood to enhance the familiarity and better understanding of concepts. Few of these terminologies which are used for the current Hotel Complex project are described below:
- Mastic: This is the term that is used for pasty materials that would be used as cement in this project to settle tiles and to develop a protective coating for waterproofing and thermal insulation.
- Plenum: This term in this project would be used and it denotes he main duct for hot-air supply from furnace.
- Girder: During the construction, it is imperative that concentrated loads be supported at isolated points to provide strength to the structure. For this purpose, a large steel beam would be constructed which is referred as Girder.
Pre-Design studies and type of information to design most suitable foundation type
As per the scenario, there are various studies that must be carried out to construct the most suitable foundation type for residential, industrial and commercial structures like Hotel Complex and the Bridge. The pre-design studies and information gathered through these studies are mentioned below:
- Geotechnical Reports: One of the most important pre-design study to be carried out is out of geotechnical reports. These reports would provide the civil engineers a detailed information about the geological and soil conditions below the site of building structures. Information gathered from these reports would help in determining the geotechnical hazards like areas likely to face liquefaction and faulty zones as well as soil characteristics to effectively choose the foundation type for these characteristics.
- Hydrology Studies: To effectively manage and maintain the environment, it is essential to carry out hydrology studies which would help to gather information about ground water depth, recharge zones and aquifers, floodplain ones and drainage patters, etc. The information gathered through these studies would influence the decision for choosing the foundation type on these above factors that ensure its long term sustainability. For instance if soil conditions are weak, deep foundation would be used.
Construction of various foundations and their suitability for use with various structures
After the pre-designed studies, it is imperative to choose the most effective foundation type for different structures. These foundation types are described below:
Deep Foundation: These foundation types are way below the surface to enhance the bearing capacity and are mostly 3 meter below ground level (Various Types of Foundation,2018). These are constructed in a way that the load is transferred to a competent and more deeper strata in case the condition of soil is unsuitable. Pile is the most suitable type of deep foundation. These are required to transmit the load and even deeper than the reach of shallow foundations. This type of foundation is most suitable for the bridge that needs to be constructed over the stream.
Shallow Foundations: Commonly, these foundation types are known as open or spread footings seeing their nature of excavating the surface of earth till the footing's bottom. The various types of shallow foundations are mentioned below:
- Pad Foundations: These foundations are constructed to support load at individual points or structural columns. The shape could be square, rectangular or circular, depending on the nature of construction.
- Strip Foundations: Construction of these foundation type is to support lines of loads that help to support entire wall weight (Zhao and et. al 2015).
- Mat Foundations: The third type of shallow foundation are mat or raft foundation and are constructed to support the load of entire structure of a building. These support load from heavy structures such as walls or columns. Since this foundation is best suited where basements are required to be constructed, Mat Foundation could effectively be used to construct a commercial building like the Hotel Complex.
Impact of Site Information on Foundation Design
For effectively constructing the foundation design, it is very crucial for the civil engineers to gather effective knowledge about the site as it has vital impacts on the design of the foundation. These impacts are described below:
- Availability of energy: A major information about the site that must be gathered is the easy availability of energy. With abundance of energy more investment could be made regarding usage of effective technology for establishing better foundation design.
- Impact of studies: It is imperative for the engineers to determine the most appropriate foundation type for their structures. For a commercial structure like the Hotel Complex, the studies like geotechnical and hydrological studies would verify the strength of soil for the foundation type of the structures.
- Environmental Legislations: These refer to the legislations regarding the environment concerns on the site of constructions. Information of these would help the engineers in designing the foundation type that promotes environmental preservation and is in accordance with the laws regarding the area.
Description of the functional characteristics of elements of superstructure and design selection criteria for their usage
Superstructure refers to the the structure that is made above the foundation. It refers to all the building structure of the Hotel Complex. There are various elements of superstructures, functional characteristics of which are described below:
- Walls: The most important characteristic of wall is that they provide immense strength to the overall structure. Another characteristic is that it would provides the structure with resistance to ground moisture and weather. The design selection criteria for the walls that effectively helps to carry out its function must be to use concrete in the structure. Another criteria would be the length of the wall that must be 10 feet for each floor.
- Roofs: These would provide effective weather resistance to effects of weather like rain, snow and so forth. They would also provide effective sound insulation from external sources. The design selection criteria for roof of the hotel is to construct roof which has prefabricated trusses and sheathing material like fibreglass.
- Floors – Ground and Intermediate: Floors are an integral part of a structure. Their functional characteristics must include effective durability to the overall structure of the hotel. Another major functional characteristic of floor, both ground and intermediate involves fire resistance to ensure safety of the people present in the building at the time of contingency. The design selection criteria would be to use floor sheets and concrete in ratios that enhance its functions.
- Windows and Doors: Both of these elements allow light and ventilation inside the building which serves as one of its crucial characteristics. Another functional aspect in windows and doors is that both of them would serve as a link to internal as well as external parts of the Hotel Complex. These element must be constructed using wood, aluminium and Glass-fibre-reinforced plastic (GFRP) that would contribute in its design (Wullweber, 2015).
- Staircases: These elements within the structure of the Hotel Complex would allow effective access to various floors of the Hotel. Staircases possesses another functional characteristic of floors is that it provides means of conveying furnitures and fittings between various floor levels. These must be at-least 36 inches wide and must be constructed using concrete, marbles and wood that would serve as an effective design criteria (Tay and et. al., 2016).
- Finishes: This element would provide the firm with outstanding texture. In addition, another functional characteristic served by finishes is that it would provide the Hotel Complex with corrosion resistance for a long period of time. Design selection criteria for finishes would be usage of plaster on the walls as well as carpets that would improve its design.
Pre-design studies carried out and information collected for the Hotel Complex
Before construction of the superstructure, it is prominent that pre-design studies be carried out regarding the structure of the building. The pre-design studies required for this project is mentioned below:
- Geodetic Studies: It is essential for the Hotel Complex to get effective geodetic support. Since the Hotel Complex would be a five-storey structure, it is essential that it comply with specific variances and tolerance. These studies would allow the engineers to gain the knowledge about geometric shape of the earth and gravitational field on the area which would allow them to accurately determine the design which enhances its load bearing capacity (Safin, Sattarova and Khairullina, 2017).
These studies are imperative for constructing superstructure and contribute in enhancements of understanding of concepts and as well as helps in determining the pre-stages of construction.
How the component parts of an element allow it to fulfil its function
The various component parts of the building effectively help them to fulfil their functions. These component parts are described below:
- Concrete: As per the scenario, this is an integral component part of all the above elements that would provide the structure with effective strength, durability as well as resistance from fire, weather, water and sound. It also provides the structure with support.
- Floor Sheets: The capacity of the floor to be sound, water and fire resistance is enhanced using floor sheets. Moreover, these sheets also help in overall strength as well as load bearing capacity.
Different types of structural frame used to carry the primary and secondary elements of the superstructure
It is essential for civil engineers to design structural frames that could be used to carry elements of the superstructure effectively. These structural frames are described below:
- Rigid Structural Frame: These structures are those in which columns and beams are constructed monolithically in a way in which they act collectively in resisting the load. As compared to brace structures, these structural frames provide more stability. Moreover, they also provide better resistance to torsions and shears than any other structural types (Shim and Choi, 2017).
- Braced Structural Frames: Bracing is present between columns and beams in these frames to enhance their resistance against forces both sideways as well as lateral. Under this, bracing is provided by placement of diagonal components between columns and beams. As compared to rigid structures, these provide better resistance against wind forces and earthquakes and is more effective in terms of support.
Techniques used for re-mediating the site prior to construction commencing
It is imperative for the civil engineers to re-mediate the site prior to construction. Ways in which this could be achieved are as follows:
Biological Treatment: Biodegradation plays a prominent role in breaking down organic compounds. Civil engineers in this case could use bioremediation techniques which allows removal of hydrocarbon contaminants from soils. Air emissions from biopile are treated effectively through bio-filtration (Pan and et. al., 2015).
Chemical Treatment: There are various chemical treatments that could be used to effectively re-mediate the site which are further discussed as under:
- Chemical Immobilization: This process could be executed by present various treatment chemicals into the soil. Saturation of chemical solution with the soil is required to use soluble chemicals. Whereas insoluble chemicals could be presented in the ground by forced injections or suspension transport.
- Oxidation: This is an effective chemical treatment that ensures elimination of both the toxicity and volume of contaminants. Methods like Chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide additives, photolysis and reductive dechlorination are effectively used under this method (Mok, Shen and Yang, 2015).
Types of substructures works required for the infrastructures
For construction of huge infrastructures, it is imperative that various substructure works be carried out to effectively conduct the construction. These substructure works are described below:
- Propping: This method refers to adding temporary support to structure and adjacent properties during under-development. There are various propping schemes that could be used to provide support to the structure.
- Groundwork: This refer to the overall activity related to substructure which involves bulk and sequenced excavations, po;e probing, trimming, headings and shafts. It basically means construction of sub-surfaces to begin the construction work. It is an essential activity which could enhance the process of construction of infrastructure.
Superstructure, Substructure and Civil Engineering Structures necessary for Hotel Complex
For effectively carry out the construction of Hotel Complex, it is necessary to identify the superstructure, substructure and civil engineering structures which are necessary for the project. These three elements are described below:
- Superstructure: This is the whole extension of the structure above the baseline. The superstructure of hotel complex would be constructed using Bricks, Mortars, Arches, Columns, Slabs and Beams. For the complex, the layout would be rectangular structure which could provide balanced load on the surface. The construction material to be used would be concrete as well as steel in the beams to provide support and enhance durability (Li, Xu and Zhang, 2017).
- Substructure: The part below the baseline, the substructure for the hotel used would be mat foundation as a basement needs to be constructed for parking. Equal load would be enforced on the structure that would be handled effortlessly by the beams (Lei, Pin and Ming-min, 2016).
- Civil Engineering Structure: These structures are constructed for long term basis and serve a unique purpose. For the given project, a bridge that is required to be constructed over the stream define this structure. It would be made using deep foundation and a combination of concrete and steel.
Supply arrangements for primary services
To effectively construct the Hotel Complex and bridge, it is essential to arrange primary services which would support in execution of the overall construction project. These services are mentioned below:
- Energy Supply: This requires supply of energy such as solar energy, geothermal, biomass as well as wind. It is essential that these services be arranged in order to effectively construct the hotel without any delay in the process.
- Alarm Systems: Another service which is necessary during and after construction is the alarm systems. These services would allow effective alert of contingency and ensure safety of the workers as well as the people.
- Lifts: Another primary service includes lifts and escalators to effectively transfer heavy equipments and people on different floors during constructions without risking the safety and within due time (Kadlec and et. al., 2017).
Distribution arrangement for primary services
There are various distribution arrangement that is required for construction workers as well as engineers to carry out their construction tasks. These distribution arrangements are described below:
- The most effective arrangement would be transportation of raw materials to the construction site. This must be timely in order to avoid any kind of delay that could add to the cost of the project.
- Supply of 3-phase electricity which enhances the functions of the electrical equipments and machineries.
- The most important aspect however, is the construction of bridge to facilitate and speed up the distribution of these primary services.
- Effective duct-work must also be completed to enhance the working of the overall construction project.
Elements of the superstructure used to facilitate the primary services
There are various elements of superstructure that would facilitate primary services. These services involve escalators, building control systems and energy supply which could be effectively used due to presence of walls, floors, doors and windows. However, to ensure facilitation of primary services, it is imperative that measures like fire safety are properly taken through windows and exit doors.
Doors and windows could effectively be used to supply raw materials and stairs would allow effective floor access to fasten the purpose. It is essential for civil engineers to give appropriate design and size to doors and windows to provide easy access to electrical equipment and movement of people through internal parts of the structure.
Distribution of the primary services impact on the overall design of the building
It is imperative that distribution of primary services be facilitated in a way that contribute in outstanding design of the building. It is important for the design of the Hotel Complex to be built in a way that it provides comfort to the staff as well as the guests. Sufficient energy supply would allow the design to be constructed perfectly without any flaw. Escalators and lifts in the building would ease the travelling of customers as well as their luggages on different floors. The staircases inside and outside the complex would ensure and enhance the safety measures that are necessary to be taken by the hotel staff as well as the engineers (Hager, Golonka and Putanowicz, 2016).
Thus, it is concluded from the above report that construction technology is imperative in construction of different structures effectively. It is imperative to understand various buildings and how sustainability could be promoted in building projects. A detailed knowledge and studies must be carried out for the substructures as well as the superstructures before commencing a project. The techniques of re-mediations as well as substructure works must be carried out in effective manner by the engineers to enhance the sustainability. Lastly, to successfully complete the overall project, it is imperative to carry out the building