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8279 Downloads 32 Pages 7956 Words
Religiosity is consider as term which is difficult to define and which include various factors in it such as experiential, ideological, ritualistic, intellectual creedal, doctrinal, consequential, culture and many more (Reker and Wong, 2012). The respective factor will directly and indirectly impact on psychological well being of a person who is from middle age to elderly age. The respective research is based on topic i.e. related to role of religiosity on the well being of a person at psychological level from there middle aged to elder age. For this researcher conduct research and for which they collect data by using method and resources. However, the religiosity can be considered as a quality of being religious, piety and devoutness. Moreover, people who strictly follow their religious norms and believe in relevant superstitions in context of making various decisions of life.
The respective research topic is considered as most focused topic for conducting research. Psychological wellness of aim individual is describe as reside in the experience of a person which are define as a state of feeling such as satisfy, happy and healthy, pleasure, relaxation, peace of mind and many more. Along with this there are some feeling which are consider as negative such as depression, anxiety, frustration, unhappiness and so on. Well being of a person at psychological level is considered as beliefs of an individual on religious factors (McDougall, 2016). So through this study researcher able to identify role of religious on the middle and elder age person’s psychology and their well being.
“The role of religiosity on the psychological well-being of the middle-aged to the elderly people”.
It is describe as the methodology which is adopted by a researcher in order to gather data as well as information on a particular topic (Cherry and et.al., 2015). In respect of respective research they adopt quantitative method for collecting data as well as information in effective manner which lead to proper outcome.
In order to identify proper outcome of the research respective project manger gather information and data from approx 75 candidates who are aged among 45 to 75 years. For this researcher will select peoples who are leaving in their community and old age home which is located near their locality. Along with this researcher also collect as well as evaluate respond of participate in effective manner and in this they have to answer on the basis or sales of psychological well being as well as religious commitment. Moreover, project manager of respective research kept their collected data confidentially because it contains various personal information or data. Along with this for analyzing the data and information respective research project manager will use SPSS analysis method.
It is describe as an element which is required by a project manager while they are conducting their research in effective manner (Brim, Ryff and Kessler, 2019). There are several resources which are required by research such as funds, time duration, skilled labour and many more. In respect of respective research on the topic of identifying role of religiosity on the psychological well-being of the middle aged to the elderly people, project manager required resources like funds so that they adopt resources effectively in order to conduct work. Along with this they are required skilled labour or staffs who will help in collecting data and information and many more.
It is consider as factors which must be consider while conducting research in effective manner such as consideration of legal, cost, logistical consideration many more. The respondents of respective company are in between 45 to 75 age and they are going to answer their question which answers are based on scale and they need to consider the factor that all scale must not be of sensitive nature.
It is describe as time duration which is required by a researcher in order to complete their task as well as project in effective manner (Koenig, 2013). In respective of respective research, project manager required approx 6 months for conducting who work in proper ways.
This part of research is kind of review article and it is a kind of scholarly paper. It includes current knowledge consisting the substantive findings and theoretical methodological contributions to specific topic. It provides the brief description about particular area. Under this, the opinion and view points of different authors has been considered. It is based on the secondary method of data collection. There has been different sources used to gather information for an instance books, articles, journals, internet sources and many others.
The term religiosity can be explained about the extent to that religion effects on societies and intersects with other various field of lives of people. It can be considered that religion plays a significant role in society including certain aspects such as beliefs, commitments and levels of engagement of individuals with specific religion. As per views of Dana Bjarnason (2019), it has been analysed that many individuals get highly influenced by their religions norms and values it reflects in their way of thinking and working on daily basis. The religiosity is collectivities and the characteristic of people that shows different features of the belief regarding supernatural and in what manner the social group or people engage in the behaviours concerned to supernatural. It is a kind of religious activity in extreme. It consists the ritualistic, consequential, doctrinal, intellectual, cultural dimensions etc. In addition to this, sociologists of the religion have been observed that beliefs of people. Belongingness and the behaviour are not identical with actual religious belief of an individual. On the other hand, religiosity is an extent to which the religion impacts the societies and also intersects with the other public life area. It explains role that the religion plays in a society consisting extent of commitments, engagement level and beliefs of people with specific region.
According to Anil Mathur (2019), the practice of religion is not only considered as a part of an individual's culture but it can be described as a cultural belief system of people in society. It involves the criterion of believing and generating values of a person which impacts on their way of thinking and conducting daily work by making decisions. However, it has been analysed that cultural norms are responsible for encouraging to follow ethics by making them honest and true towards various aspects of life. In addition to this, every person has their own culture and religion which motivate them obey related norms and values in order to spend their lives properly. Religiosity is responsible for influencing the behaviours and decision making principles of an individual and various factors of satisfaction as well as well being. People belongs to various geographical areas has different religion and cultural norms which are followed by them in an appropriate manner.
Religion plays an important role in psychological wellness of people because religious values are helpful in shaping value orientations and motivation in order to succeed work. It consist the fact that hard work and economic success is viewed as a sign of salvation which can be encourage with the help of cultural norms. Meanwhile, religion helps an individual to remain motivated which facilitate to reduce several psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety. Moreover, individuals get demotivated when their success delayed or there are facing challenging phases of life then religious principles support them to remain calm and stable mentally.
Religion plays an important role as it is known as protective factor for maintaining psychological well being of people. It is observed that religious norms encourage people to follow ethics which facilitate to take correct steps in life for gaining better outcomes respectively. However, believing in religious aspects is also significant because it provides positivity and mental calmness which is helpful to make sure appropriate psychological health status of an individual. In addition to this, it is observed that a religion has several aspects which influence the psychological condition of an individual. It consists several factors such as prayer, meditation and yoga which plays an important role to improve psychological calm and wellness of elderly people. Moreover, it is analysed that middle aged people follow their religion honestly considering overall these elements. Initially, the factor of prayer can be considered and utilised like a self enhancing intervention for centuries. As per views of Bart Duriez (2018), a prayer is known to be inherently religious activity that can be specific or general. It has been analysed that elderly people believe to gain positivity in their lives in respect of achieving peace and prosperity in their lives. It consist the criterion of having fast on auspicious occasions in which individuals prefer to avoid anger and negative reactions as they try to remain calm which is beneficial for stable psychological condition. It will provide support to them for avoiding some common psychological problems such as stress, depression, isolation and anxiety which facilitate to make their lives stable and healthy. Prayer is a favourable factor of religion which impacts positively on mental health of elderly people when they obey religious or cultural norms & values ion proper manner.
Meditation can be described as an important part of religious practice which is utilised as it is favourable process in respect of decreasing physiological as well as psychological stress. According to opinion given by Shemaila Saleem and Tamkeen Saleem (2019), it is very important for maintain peace of brain and improve psychological well being of an individual. However, meditation is not only considered as a significant in religion but is is known as very effective method in medical field to have number of benefits for health of middle aged people. Moreover, it will render support reduce various health issue like self actualisation, irritability, anxiety, moodiness, improving learning ability, memory, feelings of vitality, rejuvenation and emotional stability. At the other hand, yoga is also a part of some of religions which is very important and beneficial in order to maintain proper health along with reducing chance of occurring diseases. Yoga is helpful to avoid several severe health problems and reduce related issue by conducting regular yoga activities by elderly people at home. However, religious factor yoga is widely utilise by individuals at global level for improving their health condition to remain disease free. Furthermore, it is responsible for developing mental, physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual components which facilitate to build up a well round organic personality.
Religions impacts on psychological condition of an individual according to their thoughts and beliefs. It consist the fact that a primitive a person had primitive religions and they worshipped number of element of natures such as air, cloud, sun, earth, water etc. However, religions are important as it facilitate to motivate elderly people for saving natural resources which is practically a very good aspect. Meanwhile, religion can be known as an organised, community based system of beliefs that impacts positively on mental health condition of elderly people. Laura Greenstein (2019) states that it is favourable for individuals because it is responsible for providing a sense of culture and typically offers a group of people to connect with over same thoughts & value. In addition to this, similar cultural beliefs of people encourage them to easily trust each other remain connected in future to help each other. It has been analysed that religious aspects impacts positively on mind set and thoughts of individuals as it motivate elderly people to avoid certain things such suicide attempts, alcohol, smoke and drug abuse. These factors are responsible for creating number of several physical and mental health problems that can be avoided with the help of religions values.
Religions has several community based benefits which is favourable for elderly people for remaining comfortable in society. Initially, it is suitable for initiating social connections among individuals to share their thoughts and problems with each other. However, it is responsible for generating a sense of belongingness among people which is essential to stay comfortable. Moreover, religion is beneficial as it offers trustworthy as well as secure social engagement which is very important to establish healthy and prosperous society. At the other hand, religious aspects are profitable for elderly citizens because it is helpful for them in order to cope with challenging situation or events of life (divorce, death of loved ones etc.). Meanwhile, it is effective to give structure, regularity & predictability and it is also responsible for permitting for duration to take rest as well as holidays along with another special occasions of the entire year. Religion based on teachings are supportive for giving guidelines to live by significance of doing correct attempts through making appropriate decisions. It is accountable for providing learning about compassion, forgiveness and gratitude among middle aged individuals. People can determine lessons of life and learn many things from challenges and negative situations.
Religious aspects such as prayer, meditation and yoga impacts positively on mental health of middle aged people. These aspects are responsible for providing mental peace and calmness which is favourable to avoid various psychological problems like depression, isolation, anxiety, stress and so on. Moreover, religion is beneficial for elderly people to maintain their psychological well being in appropriate way.
This section gives a detailed account on the manner in which the research was conducted. In addition to this, it also aims to provide sufficient information that can be easily replicated for carrying out further study in this context (Abdel-Khalek, 2019). For furnishing a clear understanding of the research topic as well as the related investigation, the information has been discussed in the following sub-headings:
Research design can be described as an effective framework of several technique and methods that are selected by an investigator for conducting an investigation properly. It consist the criterion of making combination of number of elements of study is reasonably logical way in order to deal with specific problem of research. However, re type of specific investigatory issue which has been faced by organisation or group of people will determine appropriate research design which is required to be used by researcher in order to gain accurate findings. Moreover, research design has several essential components like accurate purpose, techniques for collecting details, method to analyse details, type of research methodology, probable objections, settings of research study, timeline and measurement of analysis (Ardelt and Ferrari, 2019).
In addition to this, research design can be divided into two categories such as qualitative and quantitative research design from which suitable one should be selected by investigator. Initially, qualitative research can be applied to utilise theoretical data with the help of gathering information from historical data, books, journals, articles etc. to conduct study properly. In this kinds of research design, research problem is analysed and investigated about relevant aspects in order to make appropriate results. At the other hand, quantitative research design consist the method in which statistical data and mathematical expressions are used to make desired conclusions. It is necessary for an investigator to have statistical conclusions in respect of collecting actionable insights. Moreover, it consist the criterion of analysing numerical data in order to make accurate findings to specific problem or topic of research.
This study entails a quantitative data analysis which is carried out to evaluate the relationship between religion and psychological well-being. Here, independent variables are based on dependent and independent variables through the utilisation of SPSS. Additionally, an information sheet has been included which provides an outline regarding the purpose of this research, nature of participation, data extraction as well as analysis methodologies. Also, possible risks and benefits of this study have also been ascertained for the successful completion of this investigation.
Sampling can be described as a process to select group of respondents to conduct entire study by involving them to gain evidence to specific problem. It can be considered as a procedure utilised in statistical analysis in which predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger population (Areba and et.al., 2018). However, sampling can be segregate into two categories such as random and non random sampling which are further divided into their separate parts. Meanwhile, random sampling can be further separated into certain divisions including simple, equal probability, systematic, stratified simple, multistage stratified, cluster and multi cluster random sampling. Moreover, non random sampling includes its several parts such as availability, quota, and expert sampling.
Random sampling refers to every individual observation has equal probability to be selected into a sample where there should be no pattern when drawing particular sampling. This methods is beneficial as it provides a significance that is a percent of chance as a relationship may be found in sample data due to luck so that investigators often utilise the 0.05% significance level. In contrary to this, non random sampling can be explained as an method to establish a sample which is widely used in qualitative research because random sampling is very much expensive. The present investigation will focus on random sampling in order to select respondents to conduct study properly. The research entailed a survey which required the response of 75 Indian Nationals aged between 45 to 75 years. This group of respondents are from nearby communities along with old age homes.
For the purpose of carrying out this investigation in a successful manner, questionnaires were utilised which were required to be filled the participants. For this purpose, firstly, all the respondents were fully made aware of the aims and objectives of the study along with confidentiality of their responses as well as withdrawal procedure. The survey included utilisation of SPSS Software which is one most widely used apparatus for data extraction and analysis.
The measures taken into account for this particular research includes utilisation of SPSS Software wherein an independent as well as dependent variables were chosen. The independent variables can be defined as those that do not observe any impact due to changes in some other variable and vice versa (Bailly and et.al., 2018). In the context of this research, two scales have been taken into account viz. The Religious Commitment Scale and Psychological Well-being Scale suggested by Carol D. Ryff. Here, the dependent variables have been based on the former whereas the independent variables related to the latter scale units. This is due to the fact that the research aims to analyse the relationship between religion and psychological well-being. Thus, it is only sensible to create the dependent variable as religiosity followed by the people. Again, the Indian Community's integral values prioritise religion among all their commitments in their daily lives. Hence, any changes in religiosity would impact the other variables. Thus, making it a correct choice for being depicted as dependent rather than independent unit of measure.
In the context of the primary data collection, the questionnaire included 'The Religious Commitment Scale', abbreviated as RCI-10. This measure includes 10 components along with a Likert scale ranging between 1 to 5. Herein, the score of 1 related to 'Not at all True of me', 2 represented 'Somewhat True of me', 3 denoted 'Moderately true of me', 4 depicted 'Mostly true of me' whereas a score of 5 indicated 'Totally true of me'. Through the data collected using this scale, each component was abbreviated as RC1 to RC10 that was treated as dependent variable.
On the other hand, the Well Being Manifestation Measure scale (WBMMS) proposed by Carol D. Ryff included a variety of sub-scales that included 25 questions. These have been enumerated as under:
The evidence of these have been provided below by way of the questionnaire based on which the data has been collected:
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, MEAMNC AND PSYCHOLOCICAL WELL-BEING SURVEY
Please circle or fill in the appropriate response where indicated. Please provide a
response for each and every question.
Religion: Hindu Muslim Christian
Part-Time Retired Nil
Instructions: Read each of the following statements. Using the scale to the right, CIRCLE the response that best describes how true each statement is for you.
Not at all
true of me
true of me
true of me = 3
true of me
1. I often read books and magazines about my faith.
2. I make financial contributions to my religious organization.
3. I spend time trying to grow in understanding of my faith.
4. Religion is especially important to me because it answers many questions about the meaning of life.
5. My religious beliefs lie behind my whole approach to life.
6. I enjoy spending time with others of my religious affiliation.
7. Religious beliefs influence all my dealings in life.
8. It is important to me to spend periods of time in private religious thought and reflection.
9. I enjoy working in the activities of my religious affiliation.
10. I keep well informed about my local religious group and have some influence in its decisions.
For WBMMS, the following questions have been included:
First and foremost, a sample of 75 participants was chosen by using Stratified Sampling Technique. As per this method, the entire population is segmented on the basis of different sub-groups or strata, from which, sample is selected randomly in a proportionate manner (Bradshaw and Kent, 2018). The whole process or investigation undertaken to derive results includes conduction of primary and secondary data research. Here, the subgroups included Age, Occupation, Gender, Religion and Educational Status that belonged to nearby local community as well as old age homes. Once this was achieved, the participants were disclosed regarding the main objective for conducting this investigation by way of information sheets.
For the primary research, the utilisation of questionnaires was the main apparatus that helped in gaining valuable insights regarding the same. Apart from this, a secondary data research included the acquisition and review of literary works of previous scholars who had attempted in deriving information through similar researches conducted by them (Chowdhury, 2018). This was important since it aided in establishing a strong foundation of current investigation undertaken by providing enough evidences in regards to religiosity and its impact on psychological well-being of individuals. Based on the aforementioned scales, the data was collected, transferred and segregated in the form of dependent as well as independent variables so as to facilitate successful extraction of meaningful inferences from the same. The Data extraction methodology utilised in this context includes the performance of Linear Regression Model of SPSS Software. It is important to note that each component of RCI-10 was selected for this purpose. This means that for first attempt, RC1 was taken as the dependent variable whereas all the components WBMMS were treated as independent variable. This procedure was repeated 10 times in total.
Mainly, this investigation undertook the form of a quantitative research rather than a qualitative one. The data collected by way of questionnaire survey and analysed using Linear Regression Model, generated outputs that have been attached in the Appendices Section of this research study. In research, this technique is one of the widely used methods after correlation field that aims to provide an extended information on variables (Galen, 2018). Linear Regression facilitates prediction of value for a particular variable, usually dependent, based on another variable, usually independent. As per this model, the output has been depicted in three parts viz. Model Summary, ANOVA and Coefficients tables. These have been discussed as under:
Through the analysis of data generated through these tables, a comprehensive analysis has been conducted in regards to the research study.
The following results have been derived through the interpretation of generated SPSS Outputs, under Linear Regression Model:
The Model Summary provides an overall model fit which indicates constant predictors viz. WB_H25, WB_H24, WB_H21, WB_H23, WB_H22, WB_C18. These variables mainly relate to Happiness as well as Control of Self and events.
Based on these results, it can be said that RC1 is mainly influenced by WB_H component of WBMM scale that is concerned with happiness. Hence, one can say that majority of the respondents felt healthy and in good shape (WB_H25) by reading books and magazines regarding faith on a frequent basis. This is an important finding as happiness is directly related to the psychological well-being of the participant. On the other hand, their morale was not much of an influence based on the habit of reading religious texts and magazines of faith on a regular basis.
Based on these results it can be said that RC2 is mainly influenced by both WB_H and WB_H components of WBMM scale that is concerned with happiness. Hence, one can say that majority of the respondents felt healthy and in good shape (WB_H25) by reading books and magazines regarding faith on a frequent basis. Along with this, they were able to clearly sort things out when faced with adversity. This is finding indicates that happiness as well as low levels of anxiety were prevalent among the participants who made financial contributions to religious organisations (Musa, Pevalin and Al Khalaileh, 2018). On the other hand, there level of inner peace did not prove to have any significant influence on this outcome variable. This is again important from the point of view that even though the participants supported donations to such organisations, they were subjected to feeling bad about themselves at some point. From a psychological well-being perspective it is again an important part of the findings achieved through this investigation.
Thus, RC3 is mainly influenced by WB_H component of WBMM scale that is concerned with happiness. Hence, one can say that majority of the respondents felt good about themselves as well as at peace (WB_H22) by spending time so as to grow in understanding their faith. Based on this output it can be said that even though financial contributions did not provide much influence towards their level of happiness, spending quality time did. Again these two can be assumed to be directly proportionate to each other as mental health is critically impacted by how good and at peace one feels with themselves.
As per these results, the respondents believed that following a particular religion would enable them to ascertain the true meaning of life. As a result, the happiness scale variables WB_H22 and WB_H25 are higher than others as they talk about inner peace and happiness (Peteet, Al Zaben and Koenig, 2019).
When asked from respondents regarding the founding principles behind their approaches to living their life, majority of them felt that they found life exciting and wanted to enjoy every moment of it. Also, there happiness levels as well as control on self and events was much more substantial (Sharma and Singh, 2019). This is due to the fact that when one is happy and wants to enjoy life, they would have a much better control over their manifested thoughts, thus, creating a positive psychological well-being.
Here,religious affiliations mainly relate to those people who are of same religion. Respondents recorded higher levels of happiness by spending time with others who shared same beliefs and values. This is a crucial part of maintaining psychological well-being at an optimum level, as one is able to feel much more protective as well as connected with their surroundings (Sohi, Singh and Bopanna, 2018).
Religious beliefs are the teachings that are followed by the people practising a particular religion. Based on the aforementioned results, the ability to stay calm in the face of adversity, living life to the fullest and staying healthy are some of the variables that were ascertained through this output (Stearns and et.al., 2018). Thus, indicating that the mental well-being of the respondents was positively influenced through the religiosity followed by them.
Through these results it can be ascertained that the independent variables related to better health as well as feeling good about oneself and at inner peace were some of the crucial components of this outcome variable (Steger, 2018). This is due to the fact that private religious s thoughts and reflection required one to be at peace and happy with oneself. Thus, indicating a direct relationship between this outcome variable and psychological well-being.
Activities related to Religious affiliations involve voluntary participation, mostly on the grounds of how willing a person is to contribute their efforts to their religious group. Based on the outputs generated through Linear Regression Model, the people who believed that really enjoying and living life to the fullest was the crucial component of life, were able to associate with this variable the maximum (Sujarwoto, Tampubolon and Pierewan, 2018). Also, those who felt good and in shape were in agreement with this variable the most.
As per this output, the participants who were well-informed regarding their local religious groups as well as had some influence in its decisions ranked higher in terms of good health and morale. Again these variables are some of the most important components while determining the well-being of an individual (Taves, Asprem and Ihm, 2018).
Based on the outputs derived from above, it can be asserted that there is a positive relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being among those elderly who are aged between 45 to 75 years of age. This is mainly due to the fact that they feel happy, good in shape as well as remain in control of most of the events of their lives. Thus, providing them with a higher rank under this investigation.
As per the primary as well as secondary investigation taken into account in this research, it can be asserted that there has been considerable influence in terms of religiosity when it comes to the well-being of the middle aged and elderly people (Thauvoye and et.al., 2018). In India, specifically, the commitments made in the day-to-day related activities, have certain amount of prioritisation given to the religion for a specific individual. The above research included data on 75 respondents which belonged to the local community as well as old age homes. This sample was ascertained through the implementation of stratified sampling technique. Through the responses collected, the data was first transferred to SPSS Software, wherein it was processed using Linear Regression Model.
Through this primary research, the following results were ascertained:
On the other hand, the accumulation and review of secondary data achieved through Literature Review enabled in understanding whether or not the concept of religiosity was connected with the concept of psychological well-being in a positive manner. As per the evidences founded through both these researches it can be successfully concluded that there exists a strong inclination between the findings of previous literary scholars and this investigation.
This is evident through the fact that according to opinion given by Shemaila Saleem and Tamkeen Saleem (2019), it is very important for maintain peace of brain and improve psychological well being of an individual. Such an assertion is clearly observed to be true from the findings of the primary research construed in this study wherein inner peace is taken as a crucial component while studying various religiosity variables. Another observation is found in the literary work of Anil Mathur (2019) who states that the practice of religion is not only considered as a part of an individual's culture but it can be described as a cultural belief system of people in society. It involves the criterion of believing and generating values of a person which impacts on their way of thinking and conducting daily work by making decisions. This is observed in terms of religious groups that have influences on the society's decisions as well as their actions.
Thus, it can be affirmed that religiosity and psychological well-being share a positive relationship with one another.
By above discussed point it can be summarized that role of religiosity on the psychological well-being of the middle aged to the elderly people. The religiosity is considered as both negative as well as positive which will impact on various ways. Such as in positive it is experiment, culture and so on whereas on the negative feeling can be anxiety, depression and so on. Religion has been[ generally considered as a protective factor for the psychological health of the people. The major result has put emphasize that psychological well being is prophesied by religiosity. The present has being tried to focus on further investigation and also endows with trends for psychological evaluation, development of the religious belief and intervention for augmenting psychological well being among the medical students. The respondent has completes religious orientation scale and scale of a psychological well being scale along with demographic data sheet. In order to measure the study variables, linear regression and T test has also realised. Plus intrinsic & extrinsic religiosity is very much helpful predicts well being of both elder and middle ages people. Hence, this kind of issue is need to be overcome.
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