World Health Organisation is an agency which is concerned with public health all round the world. It is a specialized agency governed by United Nations Development Group and was established on 7th April 1948. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. There are around 63 countries which signed the treaty in first meeting of World Health Assembly with WHO on 7th April (World Health Organization, 2012). After its establishment, WHO mainly focused on eliminating small pox and now its priorities related to diseases include communicable diseases in HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis. Other are the mitigation of effects caused by non-communicable diseases such as sexual and reproductive health, development and ageing, nutrition, food security, healthy eating, occupational health, substance abuse, etc. Its parent company is United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
Being healthy is necessary in today's era in order to live a long life. As good health is a precious thing so awareness towards health and social being is very important. When a person is healthy, they work, learn, support ourselves as well as their families and friends but when they become sick, they are unable to work properly, struggle with daily life and at last their families and communities fall behind.
1) Difference between various strategies and role of environmental analysis in WHO
This strategy is planned and measured. It included intentional acts that is considered and planned in order to achieve a goal or objective. Another name of intended strategy is deliberate strategy (Scholes, 2015). This strategy is made when company wants to achieve something and for that they they plan in order to accomplish that goal. WHO implement intended or deliberate strategy in order to achieve some set goals, it can related to anything they are planning to perform or accomplish in future.
It is a pattern of actions that develops over time in an organisation in the absence of targets and goals or despite a mission and objectives. It is also known as realized strategy and differs from intended strategy. It basically includes consistent actions and unintended patterns that was not initially expected but is generally developed in some period of time. This strategy can also be implemented when there are unpredictable situations and at hat time, company might take immediate or urgent actions to tackle the threat.
Umbrella strategy is used by organisation when they have clear vision of their goals and objectives which they want to achieve in some time. But how these goals will be achieved is still not mentioned (Blonski and et. al., 2012 ). This strategy is useful for WHO to strategize their goals in effective manner and will be able to achieve all set target within specified time. As the procedure for achieving goal is not mentioned, superiors have to focus on the procedure part in order to accomplish their goals in effective manner.
Below is the differentiation of above three strategies with relation to World Health Organisation:
As mentioned above, intended strategy is described in detail within organisational strategic plan. WHO implement this strategy in order to achieve their targets (KWAK and et. al., 2010). WHO have numerous goals and plans for future and they use this strategy to prioritise their goals and accomplish them.
Emergent strategy is a strategy which emerges with time. WHO implement this strategy in order to deal with unexpected threats, opportunities and challenges. This strategy has a dynamic nature and is unplanned. This strategy can decide both failure and success of WHO. It depends on the effectiveness of the strategy implemented at the time of unpredictable situations.
This strategy is used when WHO knows about their goals and objectives. With this, they can set their future goals and accomplish them. In this, they have the knowledge to set goals which they have to accomplish but does not know how to achieve that. WHO might face problems in achieving some of their targets.
EXAMPLE 1 : WHO have made deliberate strategy so that they can achieve their goal of “Healthier planet” in future.
EXAMPLE 1 : WHO calls for immediate action to save lives in Somalia. In this, WHO commands the government of UK to tackle severe conditions caused by drought in Somalia. They called international community to devise plans and actions to avoid a humanitarian catastrophe.
EXAMPLE 1 : WHO is aiming to provide equal access to health services for everyone, sustainable financing, adequate number of health workers, affordable essential medicines, health products and well functioning health information systems (Anderson, 2011). They wants to achieve this goal by 2030, which is a very short time. They have made their goal and don't know how to provide these services within a short time.
EXAMPLE 2 : Another, they are planning an action plan on ageing and health as this is a very common issues and people worldwide are facing problems related with ageing and other factors.
EXAMPLE 2 : WHO called for an urgent action to address chronic diseases and mental health disorders. It demanded high level political commitment and immediate scaling up of actions in order to address the epidemic of Non-communicable diseases.
Above are some strategies which are performed by world health organisation. There are working on numerous goals simultaneously as they are responsible for maintaining and providing health services to public from all round the world (Sadler and et. al., 2010). For better achievement of goals, employees working in WHO should focus on their aims provided by organisation and carry out their activities with perfection.
Above mentioned strategies are useful for WHO in order to achieve missions and gaols in better manner. They mainly prefer intended strategy as it helps them to accomplish their goals and missions in better manner. With this strategy, they focus on main goals and work accordingly. They can even deicide their long term mission by using intended strategy.
Environmental analysis is done by researcher and marketers of organisation in order to analyse external factors that can influence functioning of company. It is an effective strategic tool that help organisation with information related to internal as well as external elements. As World Health Organisation is highly reputed and is dealing with health and safety of people worldwide, so they have to face many threats and challenges related to diseases, unpredictable situations, external factors, etc. Members of WHO analyse external environment and operates according to that. Environmental analysis play great roles for WHO and one the most effective strategy used by researcher is PEST Analysis.
The Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health (PHE) comes under WHO play a great role in promoting healthier environment, intensifying primary prevention and influencing public policies in all sectors so as to address the root causes of environmental and social threats to health (El-Bassel, Wechsberg and Shaw, 2012). PHE develop and promotes different policies and interventions which is based on in depth scientific analysis for environment and special determinants of human health.
POLITICAL FACTOR : As WHO is dealing in many countries and have to deal with different political situations. In order to develop public health and safety within a country, they have to first deal and convince government of particular country. As health and well being is a national issue and requires great attention and support by legal and political parties. In order to provide better service to public, it requires huge funds which is generally funded by government authorities.
ECONOMIC FACTOR : The main aim of World Health Organisation is to provide a healthy atmosphere and better health services to everyone. As mentioned above, they are dealing in many countries and all have different economic conditions, some may have high economy and other may have low economies (Stock and Duncan, 2010). So in order to work effectively, they need to focus on prevailing economic factors and according to that strategize their further plans. In poor countries, they can provide health services and other benefits at affordable prices to everyone, etc.
SOCIAL FACTOR : These factor mainly involves population growth, age groups, people beliefs, population health, education, social mobility, attitudes, employment patterns, etc. World Health Organisation provides services to people irrespective of their cast, religion, sexual orientation, etc. They offer services without giving importance to their class, orientation, status, etc. and provide equal access of health service to everyone.
TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR : Till recent time, there has been great advancements in technologies related to health services and WHO is implementing all latest equipments and technologies to provide better services to everyone. With the help of video conferencing, workers working in WHO can reach to different countries by sitting at one place and communicate with people who need their help. They can provide their services to other countries by using latest technologies.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR : It is one of the crucial factor for consideration as it directly impact health conditions of a country. As WHO is operating in many countries and they need to analyse environment of particular country in order to provide best services to people. There are some countries whose environmental condition is not good and health conditions are not easily accessible to public (Cairney and et. al., 2014). In that area, it is necessary to develop different ways to offer services to people so that they can consume them.
LEGAL FACTOR : Different countries have their own legal bodies and legislations which formulate act and regulations related to health services and benefits according to prevailing conditions of particular country. They develop best of their acts which can provide people of that country with necessary and desired services. WHO is a worldwide company and they have their own legal policies and mainly operate according to that.
Above are some factors that are responsible for impacting positive as well as negative impact on operations of World Health Organisation. So in order to perform better activities in different companies, they need to analyse above factors in effective manner. These factors will guide keep personnel while formulating strategies and they will develop good plans, which will be beneficial for people as well as company (Mason, 2013). They need to prioritise their goals and work in that direction to accomplish that.
2) Suggestion for undertaking process of strategy within WHO and its significant for company.
Strategy is crucial for an organisation as they are responsible for practical implementation of imaginations and ideas. As World Health Organisation is highly classified and reputed agency and are providing health care services and benefits worldwide, for them it is necessary to develop proper and accurate strategies in order to provide better services to every people all round the world. As they are dealing with people's heath and life, they have to be very prices while providing health aids and services to people as carelessness can lead to death or severe illness of that person. After its establishment, there are providing best services to everyone and is focusing on improving their health services so that people can live a healthy and disease free life.
While formulating any strategy, all key members who have the authority to make and take decisions are gathered at one place and discuss about any disease or illness and any natural calamity which required immediate action. They identify the root cause and try to provide help as soon as possible in order to maintain minimise rate of injuries and deaths.
As strategies are crucial parts for an organisation and for WHO it is a matter of life and death of people as they are directly dealing with people's life. So it is necessary for them to develop effective and precise plans and strategies which can result in better health of people. There are many stages of strategy formulation which they can implement while developing plans (Yamagishi and et. al., 2010). Following are some stages of strategy development:
Environmental scanning : This includes collection, gathering and providing information in order to formulate strategies. Information is required before planning as this will aid in formulation of better strategies by key personnel of WHO. They should analyse their internal as well as external environment and identify those factors which can influence their organisation nd plans. After they have executed their environmental analysis process, they should evaluate it on continuous basis in order to improve them time to time. If they want to provide health services in some countries, so first they have to analyse environmental situations and according to that they develop their health strategies.
Strategy formulation : After analysing environment properly, key personnel should develop various strategies which they think might be suitable in that moment of time. As there are many key personnel from different countries and have different point of view on similar issues (Kmenta, 2010). So it is necessary to choose best and suitable idea and develop it into a strategy. Plan made by them should be capable enough to tackle the issues and provide positive results and also it is necessary that every key personnel should agree to that strategy. In order to select best plan, they can use voting system and strategy with maximum votes can also be chosen by the head of committee. Generally, whenever issues are discuss, World Health Organisation organise meeting in which key personnel from all countries are invited and they debate on common issues and after discussion, they come to one solution which is supported by everyone.
Strategy implementation : After formulating strategy, key personnels need to implement that as soon as possible in order to avoid severe conditions. Sometime, delay in strategy implementation can cause severe problems and even death of person. So timely implementation is very much important. World Heath Organisation should provide their health services and necessary help to people in need so that they can access to those services and get proper treatment and help rendered by them. By execution, they can accomplish their set target also which will be beneficial for both, WHO and people.
Strategy evaluation : It is necessary to evaluate plans which was established and executed by them in order to track record and progress. As WHO deal with health and illness, so in that case, it become more important for employees to ensure whether their strategy is giving positive outcomes or not. If they are not providing any good results, they should make immediate changes or modifications in order to improve the conditions (Panteghini and Ceriotti, 2012) . With better strategy they can achieve their goals in better manner and people can get proper health services rendered by World Health Organisation. Evaluation is an important part of strategy process as it give the idea whether their strategy is up to the mark or not. Sometime, World Health Organisation have to develop long term strategies which can be more than 1 year, in that case, they have to evaluate their progress so that they can keep their strategy in right direction. With this they can achieve their goal in more effective and efficient manner.
From above strategies, it is clear that, WHO consider every aspects while formulating strategies. They involve every key personnels at the time of strategic planning process. They develop plans so that they can offer different services to people who are in need, sometimes they plan long term strategies which may be of some years, say 3 – 5 years in which WHO focuses on main targets that require improvement and try to accomplish that target in some period of time. After developing strategies, WHO focuses on the type of work, how they will implement their work. They have standard rules and regulations, which required to be followed in same manner and employees perform their duties according to determined plan. This type of work is known as planning work. In this type, they first plan their future actions, schedule and prioritise their tasks and develop meeting and systems according to work. They pay attention to their procedures and try to provide their best to people.
Work Environment of World Health Organisation is very cooperative and formal. As this provides better implementation of work without any biasness. They tend to provide a healthy atmosphere within organisation so employees can easily perform their work and focus on meeting strategies criteria. There are many strategic plans and missions made by WHO which are long term and are of some years. They made mission according to the requirement of people.
There are some strategies which can be used by World Health Organisation and that strategy is known as Top Down and Bottom Up. These both strategy are very famous and is implemented within organisation. It is used in order to measure operational risks. This type of risk arise after operational failure such as management or technical failures. Operational risk is classified as Fraud and model risk.
Fraud risk arise when there is lack of controls whereas model risk arise when there is incorrect application of model. Following are the Top Down and Bottom Up approach:
Top Down approach : This approach is generally an investment strategy that selects various sectors and tries to achieve a balance in an investment portfolio. This approach helps in analysing the risk by aggregating the impact of internal operational failures. This approach is simple and is not data intensive. It mainly relies on historical data and is opposite to bottom up approach.
Bottom Up approach: It is also an investment strategy which is dependant on individual stocks. It observes the performance and management of companies and not general economic trends. Organisation use mathematical models in order to analyse individual risks and thus it is data intensive. It does not rely on historical data (O'Shannassy, 2010). It is basically forward looking approach whereas top down model is backward looking approach.
Bottom up approach is beneficial for WHO as they provide high return on their investments and there is high scope of organisation changes. With this, WHO can get high revenues in which they have invested their money and also aid in different organisation changes which will be beneficial for them in every aspects.
Source: Top down and Bottom up approach, 2018.
Process of strategy development is crucial for WHO as they are dealing with life of come person and careless nature is not at all tolerated. With careful planning and strategy formulation, they can save someone's life and prevent from serous injuries. That is why development of strategy should be done in proper manner and it should be very much specific and should be focused on all parameters of an issue.
Today's world is fast and it keeps on changing on daily basis, so in that situation, WHO have to develop better plans in order to accomplish their aim. They can formulate long term as well as short term strategies which can cover improvement in heath related issues in some country which lack basic heath services. For improvement they have to scan external factors as well as environment and should be well prepared for unpredictable contingency. World Health Organisation is working in dynamic environment so that have to make alternate plans for every aim or goal so that they can follow different alternatives for similar goal. As health conditions in different countries are changing according to their pace, in some countries, health conditions are good and in some countries, the situation is worse. So to handle both conditions properly, they need to prioritise their focus and can focus in that country which require they immediate need and help.
3) Environmental analysis and potential implications from analysis on country future health
In current time period, India is third world country which is based on socio-economic development parameters in terms of health and lifestyle. The lifestyle disease which occurs in that region such as cardiovascular, diabetes, hypertension, asthma and respiratory and cancer. According to the World Health Organization, India is largest number of diabetics with 50.8 million and only 11% of the population are taking health insurance (Booth, 2014). Apart from this, environmental analysis is conducted in the context of specific industry and country analysis is required for identifying various issues or problems which occurs in that region. It must be useful for smoothly running of business operations in India for getting high range of income or revenue.
India has around 450 million people who are over 25 year year old and in current time period the proportion of people living in poverty fell by half. Current scenario is rising prosperity which marked as dual disease burden which continuously rise communicable diseases present in India. There are different type of disorders which covers a person with stress, tension and weakness. Along with this, such disease result has been growing among old age people and also this will directly effect on increasing awareness about health care sector within common public. This has grow in 2013 by 81.3 billion and currently projected grow by 17% in upcoming years. In rural areas, technologies, mobile applications and improved data services are play an essential role in maintaining and improving the health care delivery to the people. There are various companies who are investing in innovative facilities and also developing low cost digital and device solutions. India reach with international average in the number of physicians and their 74% doctors and no more than 42 million people. From the WHO research, it can be analyzed that 3% of population suffers from various types of sickness or disorder among people. Thus, it can be recommended that all the future planning on health and development mainly focus on current condition or situation of the country like India.
It is the strategic method which help in recognize all external and internal components that can directly effect on organization performance. This analysis help in determining major threats and opportunities which present in such factors. It will also assist in making effective decision in proper manner (Elmes and Barry, 2017). The best method for identifying environmental situation and condition like PESTLE analysis of India country or region for identifying their health care services or facilities. It is the major framework that can used for analyzing and scanning an organization external macro environmental for determining certain factors such as technological, social, political, economical, legal and environmental.
Implications of environmental analysis on India country:
India's health care sector provides wide range of quality care at international level which deliver appropriate care to the country people. India is the home which provide best care to their nation people and also develop innovative services for attracting large number of person. But now there are various challenges and issues which occurs within specific country so they need to take corrective step for getting out with such disputes and issues. Another major challenge is low quality health care services which is not unique to India. The research shows that developing and developed countries has demonstrate the issues and problems who will make efforts for make sure that patient receive high quality based care, immense medical errors and geographic variations in the quality of health care services. They require to make improvement in health care services with low resource settings, includes India, also they are focus on structural constraints. This will directly impact on low level of income and revenue which has documented low level of knowledge in both private and public sector.
SWOT analysis of INDIA:
From the above swot analysis of India, it can analyzed that there are various weak point which effect on country growth and development. Major weakness is poor labor laws through which country does not manufacturing very high quality based products and services for their people. In India, unemployment is also became a big issue or problems for their country people. So nation need to work on this by adopt different methods and techniques.
- Rivalry among competitors – In current time period, competitors are very strong because large number of manufacturing companies are regulating in India.
- Threat of new entrance – There are large number of competitors who are come for start new business in India which became major threats for the Indian companies and also give tough competition to them.
- Bargaining power of buyers – The bargaining power of buyer is not very high due to higher demand and various number of buyers of India.
- Bargaining power of suppliers – In India, construction company are facing various isue and problems in suppliers such as shortage, labor and constant due to large number of construction employees.
- Threat of substitute – There are various companies who come from another countries as they are giving tough competition to the Indian companies. Also they are providing same product of product at lower rate so most of customers are attracted towards them which reduces the income of Indian companies.
There are various strategies which can help in improving health care services within India. The unique factor of India's health care sector which is less available for trained health care providers. India need to adopt various strategies which assist in analyzing whole nation issues and problems in proper manner. As per this outcome, most of the health care rural areas in India in which 75% population lives and they get proper medical services to the country service providers (Kinsler and et. al., 2010). An alternative strategy for maintaining and improving the quality of health care which help in increasing the capacity of presenting supply of informal providers in rural places along with providing various tools and incentives for giving best possible care. Therefore, empirical evidence will impact on strategies for engage with informal service provider who assist in improving health care quality for the people.
Along with this, other large scale efforts engaged with informal private providers that will relied the usage of social franchising and developing new connection with health care providers in rural areas. Informal providers attend training sessions which integrated with networks and such program can be failed for improving the quality care and achieving such target health results at level of population.
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From the above report, it can be summarised that, health is one of the important aspect for a human being. It should be maintained in order to live a healthy and fit life. People have to work towards maintaining their health and well being. Sometimes, there are some conditions in which people may be affected by some disease and natural calamities. In that situation, they can take advantage if health services provided by World Health Organisation. It is a highly specified agency which renders heath related services to people of all round the world. Above report have covered different aspects and functioning of WHO and different countries in which they are operating. They formulate strategies ion order to benefit people of different countries and provide them with health support in serious conditions. In some countries, where heath conditions is not up to the mark, WHO offers affordable and economic medicines, treatments, heath services, provide them with knowledge related to precautions of disease, etc. This organisation involves key personnels from different countries and have developed policies and regulations and those regulations are strictly followed by everyone employing in WHO.
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