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HUMAN BIOLOGY

Answer :

Introduction to Human Biology

According to the generalised system, human biology is regarded as an interdisciplinary area of study which examines the humans through considering genetics, anatomy, nutrition and other influences. Thus, in this respect the present research study has been made for the purpose of analysing how internal body work to maintain the health perspective. Furthermore, discussion has also been included regarding the ways through which genetic diseases are inherited.

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1.1 Since, Ms Brown has been complaining of headache and tiredness, it is crucial for the GP to check if all her body systems are working in appropriate manner.

The Endocrine system: It is the collection of glands which is entitled to regulate metabolism, growth and development of tissue. This helps in regulating functions of the body organs wherein the glands could aid Ms Brown to maintain the body’s homeostasis. Changes in the hormone level can aid in managing stress, infection and blood’s fluid balance (Neuman,  Debelius, Knight and Koren, 2015). Thus, with the help of proper functioning of endocrine system, Ms Brown will be able to get information about body systems. Changes in hormones will also aid Ms Brown to manage the body mass index (Zhao, Xie and Yan, 2015).

The Cardio- vascular system: This type of system is made up of of  the circulatory system and heart. This system is mainly accountable for the  transferring  oxygen, nutrients, hormones, different types of and cellular waste in the human body. This system is powered by heart and heart pushes blood to organs, cells and tissues in the body. This system will support Ms Brown for maintaining supply of oxygen throughout the body and controlling Hormones. It will assist her in controlling and resolving her acne problem and by this she will also become capable for reducing her headache problem (Herman, 2016).

The Respiratory system: This system comprise of organs that are accountable for inhaling oxygen and excelling carbon dioxide. Exchange of gases takes place through lungs during the breathing process. Human body requires oxygen and respiratory system meets this essential need of the body. Ms Brown will maintain flow of oxygen ion body and through this her hormonal balance can also be maintained.

The Lymphatic and immune system: This system is responsible for ensuring movement of interstitial fluid from tissues to the Circulatory system and Lymphatic and immune system are closely related with each other and immune system is defence system of body that support for fighting against the germs, Pathogenic virus, bacteria and fungi. Mr brown will get stronger immune system and it will protect her from fighting against various infections (Azar and Vaidyanathan, 2015).

2.1 The nervous system :-

Nervous system in human body is responsible for maintaining human health. This system is responsible for transmitting signals to and from various parts in the human body. It is a system in which cells  and  nerves sends to message to spinal cord, brain and several parts of the human body (Paxinos, 2014). Nervous system comprise both the peripheral systems and the central nervous system. In the same way Central nervous system comprise brain and the spinal cord. In contrary to this peripheral system is comprised of autonomic and one more somatic nervous system. Herein one more important fact about the Central nervous system of body is that it is made up of 2 different  major parts and name of parts includes spinal cord and Brain.

Four principle part in Brain are Brain stem, Cerebrum, Cerebellum and Diencephalon.  Neuron is explained as  type of different specialized conductor cell that are responsible for receiving and transmitting  important electrochemical nerve impulses. One more attribute of Neuron is that it is made up of  long arms and cell body and that transfer impulses from one part to another body part. The 3 main functions that are included in nervous system includes sensory, integration and motor and all the three are key functions of nervous system (Louis, Perry and Ellison, 2016). Sensory functions that are included in nervous system is about involving gathering of information from the sensory receptors that are responsible for monitoring the external and internal conditions of the central nervous system. Along with this, Second most important function of nervous system  includes  processing of various types of sensory signals that are being passed to Central nervous system. The third major function of nervous system is to stimulate effective neurons and carry different signals from the Gray matter of the CNS.

The urinary system comprise of various groups of organs that are mainly responsible for taking and filtering out the excessive fluid from bloodstream. The various substances are than at next stages are further filtered out from human body. One more important fact about is that Urine is type of  liquid that is produced through one important body part that is  kidneys and it is further collected in organ named as bladder. After that it goes for further level and gets excreted through the Urethra. Urine system comprise of Kidneys, bladder, urethra. Major functions of the systems is for eliminating the waste matter from the human body. It also works for  regulating the  blood volume and the blood pressure.

Urine is formed in the kidneys and after that it is filtered through blood. After that stage urine  further gets passed through the ureters to the organ that is bladder and than it goes and passes urethra to outside the body. Along with this Major functions and work of the Urinary system is to remove the extra waste material from the human body and with this it also does regulation of electrolytic balance for potassium, calcium, and sodium. Urinary system is also responsible for controlling blood volumes and also for maintaining blood pressure. One more key role is to regulate acid base homoeostasis (Heim and Mitelman, 2015).

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3.1 One genetically diseases is inherited when normal functioning of a gene that exist in a pair gets override with the Abnormal one.

This type of diseases can be passed through the families in various type of distinct patterns. Dominant type of genetic diseases are caused when mutation occurs in one copy of gene. Probability for occurrence of this diseases enhances if a parent has dominant genetic diseases. A child gets fifty percent chances for inheriting from this diseases and this type of diseases occurs at spontaneously. It happens while random mutation of any gene occurs at the time of conception. There are various types of dominant diseases and and it includes Huntington diseases. This type of diseases can be identified through DNA test. Genetic disease can also occur if both the parents of child are carrier of the same type of disease. Chromosome abnormality is also a reason due to which genetic diseases occurs and this diseases can occur at the time of pregnancy. Availability of extra chromosome or any missing chromosome can be a major cause due to which genetic diseases is

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