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HUMAN BIOLOGY

Analysis and Study of genetic diseases

Introduction to Human Biology

According to the generalised system, human biology is regarded as an interdisciplinary area of study which examines the humans through considering genetics, anatomy, nutrition and other influences. Thus, in this respect the present research study has been made for the purpose of analysing how internal body work to maintain the health perspective. Furthermore, discussion has also been included regarding the ways through which genetic diseases are inherited.

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1.1 Since, Ms Brown has been complaining of headache and tiredness, it is crucial for the GP to check if all her body systems are working in appropriate manner.

The Endocrine system: It is the collection of glands which is entitled to regulate metabolism, growth and development of tissue. This helps in regulating functions of the body organs wherein the glands could aid Ms Brown to maintain the body’s homeostasis. Changes in the hormone level can aid in managing stress, infection and blood’s fluid balance (Neuman,  Debelius, Knight and Koren, 2015). Thus, with the help of proper functioning of endocrine system, Ms Brown will be able to get information about body systems. Changes in hormones will also aid Ms Brown to manage the body mass index (Zhao, Xie and Yan, 2015).

The Cardio- vascular system: This type of system is made up of of  the circulatory system and heart. This system is mainly accountable for the  transferring  oxygen, nutrients, hormones, different types of and cellular waste in the human body. This system is powered by heart and heart pushes blood to organs, cells and tissues in the body. This system will support Ms Brown for maintaining supply of oxygen throughout the body and controlling Hormones. It will assist her in controlling and resolving her acne problem and by this she will also become capable for reducing her headache problem (Herman, 2016).

The Respiratory system: This system comprise of organs that are accountable for inhaling oxygen and excelling carbon dioxide. Exchange of gases takes place through lungs during the breathing process. Human body requires oxygen and respiratory system meets this essential need of the body. Ms Brown will maintain flow of oxygen ion body and through this her hormonal balance can also be maintained.

The Lymphatic and immune system: This system is responsible for ensuring movement of interstitial fluid from tissues to the Circulatory system and Lymphatic and immune system are closely related with each other and immune system is defence system of body that support for fighting against the germs, Pathogenic virus, bacteria and fungi. Mr brown will get stronger immune system and it will protect her from fighting against various infections (Azar and Vaidyanathan, 2015).

2.1 The nervous system :-

Nervous system in human body is responsible for maintaining human health. This system is responsible for transmitting signals to and from various parts in the human body. It is a system in which cells  and  nerves sends to message to spinal cord, brain and several parts of the human body (Paxinos, 2014). Nervous system comprise both the peripheral systems and the central nervous system. In the same way Central nervous system comprise brain and the spinal cord. In contrary to this peripheral system is comprised of autonomic and one more somatic nervous system. Herein one more important fact about the Central nervous system of body is that it is made up of 2 different  major parts and name of parts includes spinal cord and Brain.

Four principle part in Brain are Brain stem, Cerebrum, Cerebellum and Diencephalon.  Neuron is explained as  type of different specialized conductor cell that are responsible for receiving and transmitting  important electrochemical nerve impulses. One more attribute of Neuron is that it is made up of  long arms and cell body and that transfer impulses from one part to another body part. The 3 main functions that are included in nervous system includes sensory, integration and motor and all the three are key functions of nervous system (Louis, Perry and Ellison, 2016). Sensory functions that are included in nervous system is about involving gathering of information from the sensory receptors that are responsible for monitoring the external and internal conditions of the central nervous system. Along with this, Second most important function of nervous system  includes  processing of various types of sensory signals that are being passed to Central nervous system. The third major function of nervous system is to stimulate effective neurons and carry different signals from the Gray matter of the CNS.

The urinary system comprise of various groups of organs that are mainly responsible for taking and filtering out the excessive fluid from bloodstream. The various substances are than at next stages are further filtered out from human body. One more important fact about is that Urine is type of  liquid that is produced through one important body part that is  kidneys and it is further collected in organ named as bladder. After that it goes for further level and gets excreted through the Urethra. Urine system comprise of Kidneys, bladder, urethra. Major functions of the systems is for eliminating the waste matter from the human body. It also works for  regulating the  blood volume and the blood pressure.

Urine is formed in the kidneys and after that it is filtered through blood. After that stage urine  further gets passed through the ureters to the organ that is bladder and than it goes and passes urethra to outside the body. Along with this Major functions and work of the Urinary system is to remove the extra waste material from the human body and with this it also does regulation of electrolytic balance for potassium, calcium, and sodium. Urinary system is also responsible for controlling blood volumes and also for maintaining blood pressure. One more key role is to regulate acid base homoeostasis (Heim and Mitelman, 2015).

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3.1 One genetically diseases is inherited when normal functioning of a gene that exist in a pair gets override with the Abnormal one.

This type of diseases can be passed through the families in various type of distinct patterns. Dominant type of genetic diseases are caused when mutation occurs in one copy of gene. Probability for occurrence of this diseases enhances if a parent has dominant genetic diseases. A child gets fifty percent chances for inheriting from this diseases and this type of diseases occurs at spontaneously. It happens while random mutation of any gene occurs at the time of conception. There are various types of dominant diseases and and it includes Huntington diseases. This type of diseases can be identified through DNA test. Genetic disease can also occur if both the parents of child are carrier of the same type of disease. Chromosome abnormality is also a reason due to which genetic diseases occurs and this diseases can occur at the time of pregnancy. Availability of extra chromosome or any missing chromosome can be a major cause due to which genetic diseases is inherited.

4.1 The statement “Comparatively, Bacteria and Fungi are more similar than bacteria and virus.” is quite true and here it is explained as mentioned :-

The statement that mentions that Bacteria and Fungi are much more similar than the Virus and  Bacteria. This statement is vary true and collecting necessary data and information relevant to these statements supports for proving authenticity of this statement. There is huge difference between bacteria and virus and their characteristics differ from each other. Viruses are simplest and smallest life form that are known. Size of Virus is 10 to 100 times smaller as compared to Bacteria. Bacteria can grow on non living surfaces where as viruses requires a living cost that can be a plant or animal for growing and multiplying themselves (Farrar, Hotez and White, 2013).

One more significant and major difference between Bacteria and virus is that bacteria is intercellular organisms where as virus are intracellular organisms. Intercellular organisms live in between the cells and intracellular organisms. Viruses have property for changing the host cell's generic material and forcing it to move from its normal function so that it became able for producing the virus itself. There also exist some types of bacteria that included in useful category Where as all viruses are harmful. Bacteria can be killed from using antibiotics while viruses can not be killed. They have different number of shapes and it range from several spheres to rods and than spirals (Murray, Rosenthal, and Pfaller,  2015).

Bacteria and Fungi are quite similar to each other and fungi are defined as group of eukaryotic organisms that are separate from animals and plants and they can be multicellular and unicellular. Bacteria and Fungi are similar to each other and both gets their foods in similar manner. Bacteria and fungi both causes harm to human body and at one side bacteria causes steep throat and pneumonia where as Fungi can cause athletes foot and ringworm diseases. Both of them contain cell membrane and cell wall. Bacteria are small celled prokaryote where as fungus are large celled Eukaryotes.  On the other hand it has been stated that a virus is a type of small infectious agent which gets replicates  inside the living cells of any other organisms.

However there are some positive and negative features of bacteria and fungi and some of fungi are edible and examples of this type includes yeast which is used in bread and antibiotic penicillin which is used for vaccine (Vanaja, Rathinam and Fitzgerald, 2015). Negative impact of fungi includes spoil food, plant diseases and it can attack vegetable crops and also can develop athletes foot. Bacteria and fungi both creates food sources that are edible for human beings. Some bacteria are useful and many fungi are beneficial for human beings where as mostly viruses are harmful. Bacteria and fungi are both living where as characteristics of virus is that it can be both living and non living. One more big difference between bacteria and virus is that bacteria can move through the environment by making use of structure that is known as flagellum where as virus do not have ant structure and they does not have any ability for moving on their own (Murray, Rosenthal and Pfaller, 2015). Fungi are organisms that are Non-motile.

CONCLUSION

Aforementioned report concludes that there are some basic systems in human body which are essential to be maintained effectively. These systems comprise of the endocrine systems, the nervous system, the musculoskeletal systems, urinary system and lymphatic and immune system. All the systems play a major functional role in smooth and effective functioning of the human body. There exist many similarities between bacteria and fungi and differences are there among bacteria and virus.

REFERENCES

  • Azar, A.T. and Vaidyanathan, S., 2015. Chaos modeling and control systems design (Vol. 581). Springer.
  • Farrar, J., Hotez, P., Junghanss, T., Kang, G., Lalloo, D. and White, N.J., 2013. Manson's tropical diseases. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Heim, S. and Mitelman, F., 2015. Cancer cytogenetics: chromosomal and molecular genetic aberrations of tumor cells. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Herman, I.P., 2016. Cardiovascular system. In Physics of the Human Body (pp. 533-621). Springer International Publishing.
  • Louis, D.N., Perry, A. and Ellison, D.W., 2016. The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system: a summary. Acta neuropathologica. 131(6). pp.803-820.
  • Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S. and Pfaller, M.A., 2015. Medical microbiology. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Neuman, H., Debelius, J.W., Knight, R. and Koren, O., 2015. Microbial endocrinology: the interplay between the microbiota and the endocrine system. FEMS microbiology reviews, p.fuu010.
  • Paxinos, G. ed., 2014. The rat nervous system. Academic press.
  • Vanaja, S.K., Rathinam, V.A. and Fitzgerald, K.A., 2015. Mechanisms of inflammasome activation: recent advances and novel insights. Trends in cell biology, 25(5), pp.308-315.
  • Zhao, Y., Xie, L. and Yan, Y., 2015. Microcystin-LR impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting oogenesis and endocrine system. Chemosphere. 120. pp.115-122.
 
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