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Path Goal And Expectancy Leadership Theory

Basic Ideas For Path Goal And Expectancy Leadership

Path Goal Theory:

Path Goal theory identifies three type of behaviour which are as illustrated below;

  • Achievement oriented leadership :This refers to the situation where leaders tend to set challenging tasks or goals for followers, shows confidence in their ability and expects them to perform at their full potential. Leaders set challenging and certainly complicated tasks for the followers, assists them in training, concentrates on their improvement in order to meet the highest level of performance.
  • Directive leadership behaviour :This is the behaviour when leaders let his followers know about what is expected for them and what efforts are required to accomplish the task. The instruction and direction of the leaders compels the followers to think and act.
  • Participative leadership behaviour :In this type of the leadership behaviour, leaders tends to display interactive and participative behaviour i.e. in any of the decision making process, leader involves his followers. In simple word, decision making is based on collective activity and consultation with group as well as information is shared with the members.
  • Supportive leadership behaviour :This type of behaviour directs towards the behaviour of the leader towards the follower i.e. how supportive he is in meeting the expectation of the followers. It is also inclusive of providing the directional support as well as direction for ensuring the goal of team member is compatible with the goal of team which is to win the match.
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Achievement Oriented Leadership :example

As per the movie, there were many situations when Herb Brooks followed an Achievement oriented behaviour with the players of his ice hockey team. For example, in the very initial days of practice sessions the coach started working on the team. This was made possible by conducting an exhaustive drill sessions. He directed them to continue with it despite the decreased energy levels of the players.

Contingency Factor For Example

Most often when the team gets distracted and don’t give their full potential, Brooks made them run all the night.. One of the most influential scenes depicts evolution of the team in true sense, Herbs makes his players do sprints after the poor performance. Boys were falling down, Craig plead with Brook to stop this before anyone got hurt, at that time one of the player stood up and said “I am Mike Eruzione And I play for United State of America”. This reflects he was result-oriented and also demonstrated the shift in behaviour and attitude if team; they were no more the individuals from colleges, they were one hockey team playing for their nation and striving to win the tournament.

Directive Leadership Behaviour :example

Herbs Brooks were only the coach these players had confronted before. He was the combination of dictator and philosopher. There were many instances, when the team was about to collapse, one of such incident is when Rob McClanahan got an injury that could impede him to play. Brooks convinced him to continue to play in the tournament by questioning his manhood and thus made him play the game despite of the pain. This in turn inspired all the team members to perform their best no matter what comes their way.

Contingency Factor For Example

Whenever required, Brooks with his straightforward statement influence the players to become aggressive and determined to achieve the team ultimate goal of victory. Coach Brooks pushes his team to play their best even through injury. He was focused on winning. For him, reaching the potential is the way towards the end but wining is the ultimate goal. Thus for him wining matters the most. Communication techniques of Brook were most powerful as well as commanding for getting the team to be focused and attentive. He does not mince words i.e. he speaks directly and plainly.

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Participative Leadership Behaviour :example

However, Brook was not always tyrant and authoritarian. Like for instance, before the game against Soviet team, he motivated his players by self-prepared text stating “Your were born to become hockey player and you are meant to be here. Such type of motivational quotes influence the player greatly and also made them trust their coach and his aims. He believed in dealing with other people in respectful and polite way, according to him, heavy-handed and aggressive approach is not always right for team and its members.

Contingency Factor For Example

Although, at certain time during the discussions, after the practice session or when team members conflicts with each other, Brooks tends to get violent but he respected his each and every player immensely and he show this respect many a times by thanking them for performing best, interacting with them etc.

Supportive Leadership Behaviour :example

Though Brook was more concerned about the performance of players but he was supportive too. His concern for the individual team player is also evident. This is best depicted from the scene when he defended his one of the player who was hurt; Brook convinced the advisory board to retain the player in team because of his hard work and right to be in the team.

Contingency Factor For Example

Coach Brooks successfully linked and thus supported personal goal of every players with the team goal and thus made them motivate for fight for their own as well as for team victory. To unify his team against the competitors, he also used one effective technique; he sends a written message to all his players stating “This team isn’t talented enough to win talent alone.

Expectancy Theory:

Expectancy theory focuses on three main links which are as mentioned below:

  • Effort-performance relationship (Expectancy) :It is the belief that efforts will lead in accomplishment of desired performance level. It is usually based on past experience, self confidence and efficacy of an individual. Major factors related with expectancy perception of an individual are self efficacy, difficulty in attaining goal and self control. With a view to achieve high expectancy, it is required to make the individual believe about expected outcome.
  • Performance-outcome (Instrumentality) :It is the belief that an individual will get reward if desired performance expectations are met. The main factor associated with person’s instrumentality is the trust. The perception of the followers whether they will receive what they desire makes them perform well and to their highest potential.
  • Rewards-personal goals (Valence) :It refers to the degree to which reward will satisfy an individual goal or needs. In other words, it means the attractiveness of potential reward for individual. Main factors associated with valence are personal values, preferences, goals and source of motivation. Every attempt to influence the team is defined by the outcome which is intended to accomplish.
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References

  • Ciardi, M., Gray, G. & O’ Connor, G. (2004). Miracle. United States: Disney.
  • Droar, D., 2006.  Expectancy theory of motivation. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.arrod.co.uk/archive/concept_vroom.php>. [Accessed on 1st July 2013]
  • Herb Brooks: 1963-2003. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.sportsecyclopedia.com/memorial/usa/hbrooks.html>. [Accessed on 1st July 2013]
  • Herb Brooks-Miracle Man. 2013. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.legacy.com/ns/news-story.aspx?t=herb-brooks--miracle-man&id=1253>. [Accessed on 1st July 2013]
  • Vroom, V.H. & Yetton, P.W. (1973). Leadership and decision making. University of Pittsburgh Press.
 
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