INTRODUCTION on Modern Movement Democracy
“The phenomenon of architecture is a development of the phenomenon of man.”
The topic for the dissertation is that how the modern movement in architecture has affected the field of architecture and what are the current challenges. The dissertation will talk about the effects of the modern architecture has brought in along with the challenges that came in modern movement in architecture. Whether the affects are positive or negative will be studied in the dissertation. The field of architecture is defined as the process that involves planning followed by designing and construction of buildings. The works of architecture in forms of materials is assumed to be as symbols and works of art. The term architecture is used to describe activities involved in construction (Kapitzke, 2006). It is considered to be as a science or an art both for describing buildings and other physical structure. Architecture is a term related to architect where services are rendered by professionals related to designing and constructing buildings. Planning and designing of buildings includes in it deciding upon ambience and space within and around them. Also, it includes to plan about all sorts of aesthetic and environmental considerations (Allison and Eshun, 2006).
Context of topic
The modern movement in architecture has brought in a lot of changes in this field. The need of architecture is to creatively bring out newer and newer approaches and ideas for construction of buildings. Modern movement in architecture needs to manipulate and then properly coordinate available materials and technology. With the advancement of new and new technologies, there are more number of ways and reforms in the field of architecture. The field of architecture not only focuses on construction of building but also on estimation of cost related to various activities in it and their administration (Gehl, 2007). Architects not only design buildings or other physical structures but also aims to visualize and imagine future which involve forecasting that how the building can sustain in future. It makes use of various aspects of mechanical and structural engineering along with humanities and arts in order to design and construct buildings and other physical structures.
- How the modern movement has affected the field of architecture?
- What are the challenges due to this on architecture?
Modern movement in architecture was a movement which took place in the 1920s and is considered to be a dramatic shift in designs of buildings different from the traditional ones. The techniques in construction were now shifted towards a new era of designs from the past. It not only leads to the development of new designs but also formed new tools and techniques that can be employed in the buildings. With this movement, the architects started using steel and other manufacturing materials.
The above research questions are related entirely to the topic and aims to find that whether modern movement has an effect on architecture and if it has then how it has been affected. The research questions are interesting and motivate the researcher as the study will result in understanding of how changes have taken place in the aspect of designing buildings. The topic of the particular study is relevant today because architecture is one such field which is growing continuously and more and more new designs are developing today. So it will be interesting to know about the developed designs which developed as a result of the modern movement.
Relevancy of topic
Earlier various forms of architecture were used which were known as the traditional approaches but now with changing times various advanced forms have come into role. The international and modern styles are the ones which make use of modern equipments and materials in such a way that they provide with new and innovative designs to the professionals in this field. Contemporary styles of architecture are those which are used today and provide great opportunities for the designers. The topic chosen for the dissertation is quite relevant in the sense that it will help the present day architectures to know that how the buildings were designed according to the traditional methods and what changes this field have experienced after the modern movement. Also, it helps to find the challenges which are faced by them because of this movement.
Approach towards the topic
Modern movements in democracy in the field of architecture have helped architects to understand modern techniques in this field and utilize the benefits that are provided through it.
In this dissertation, discussion will focus on how modern changes in democracy have added to benefits in the area of architecture. It will show that how modernism in architecture has evolved and how it is followed. Also, the various challenges ahead of architects will also be given emphasis. Due to the democracy what changes are faced by architectures in order to bring new and new innovation in construction will be given emphasis. In order to proceed in the particular research, secondary source of data will be used. The methodology used will be from articles which are published in online journals and books. In addition to this, information will also be taken from online websites which are reliable. In order to support the hypothesis formed and the research questions, case studies will be provided. This will help to support the hypothesis and reach to a final conclusion.
Outline of dissertation
- Chapter 1 – In this chapter, the introduction and the main context of the topic is given. It also gives the hypothesis formed and the research questions to reach the hypothesis and find the conclusion.
- Chapter 2 – This is the chapter of theoretical background, which provides the main theme of the topic. This provides views of different authors so that the researcher can have a better understanding of the topic. This chapter is further divided into five sub chapters. First is the introduction followed by definition of the topic. Then is the context of the topic. Then is the theoretical background which provides different ideas on the topic. Last is the analytical framework through which theories and ideas are analyzed.
- Chapter 3 – The name of the chapter is synoptic analysis. In this chapter, three case studies are provided so as to relate the main them of topic and help in understanding it. The chapter is also divided in sub chapters which contain the case studies and their analysis. by analyzing the different cases, the researcher will be able to reach the final conclusion and decide upon the hypothesis formed.
- Chapter 4 – the last chapter is of conclusion which will depict what has been learnt throughout the dissertation. It also gives suggestions for further study.
Chapter 2: Theoretical Background
“Fashion is architecture: it is a matter of proportions”
Earlier in the medieval period in Europe, the names of the architects of buildings remain unknown and it was not added against any of them. But then, a period came when craftsmen started to organize their own trades and through this their contacts were added and survived. After that in renaissance Europe, a revival took place and more emphasis was laid on how an individual contribute to the construction of buildings and the society as a whole (We and Dijkstra, 2010).
Modern architecture is that form of architecture which has features that has made it superior to all other earlier forms in construction. This form ahs main features as of simplicity and does not make use of applied decoration.
Definition of topic
The approach of modern arhcitecture is being adopted by modern architectural professionals and is one of the most dominant styles of architecture. Its main purpose was to use the materials and equipments in a rational manner and thereby rejecting the historical styles and ornaments (Modern architecture, 2013).
The main features of modern architecture includes, firstly, that it followed the concept of ‘form follows function’ which means that a design should result into such that it could directly reveal the purpose of the building and its design.
Another style is sustainable design which is based on the philosophy that all materials and objects to be used in construction shall be such that they are in compliance with economic and social sustainability. This is done in order to make use of sensitive designs in construction so that negative impact on the environment can be eliminated. Such type of buildings also aims to increase the connectivity of environment with people so that more and more meaningful innovations of this type can be created (Allen, 2000).
A new form of architecture that leads to the benefits of architectures was novelty architecture. This is a type of approach in which buildings are given a unique or unusual shape which can be considered to be a landmark. These are used by the industries for advertising their products as they can resemble the products sold by them (Sibley, 2007).
Context of topic
The modern movement resulted into modern designers who believed in following no ‘style’ but rather hold the view that modern architecture is more that a style and also included in it many advanced designs of architecture. With this movement, the architectures explored many new materials along with adopting a simplistic form of it by rejecting the historical precedents and reducing use of ornaments. According to them, modern means ‘just now’ through which they can distinguish the period of ancient and medieval period from that of period after renaissance (Modern Movement, 2013).
In the above section, the main aspect of modern movement was given and explained that how changes were brought in this field. The modern movement led to the development of an international style also. The reason behind the development of the international style in architecture was for the formation of a modern and functional theory in this filed. With this, architects could abandon the use of traditional styles of it which lead to construction of unornamented buildings. Making use of new construction materials along with techniques buildings encompassing this evolved style were completely different from that of old style in not only appearance but also in respect of various other features. The international approach in construction included asymmetrical and flat roofed along with bands of windows into a form of rectangle are entirely different and were not used in traditional style (Addington, 2006).
Important features of this style include rectangular forms with projections in round shape, a flat roof and ribbon windows. It also has cantilevered projections along with surfaces with smooth walls. The glass used in windows was painted in black so that as light enters though it, it is reflected back by surfaces painted in black. This then again reflects the light through the glass. The international style is regarded to be as one of the most simplistic structures with modern and advanced features. The pallets that were used in this style were basically white or black having other structural elements like rails and beams of steel painted with bright colors. The impression of the buildings constructed with the style when viewed by someone is that the segments and flat surfaces of the buildings can be moved by simply sliding them to any one side or another (International Style 1930 – 1950, 2013). The first building constructed with this style was the Philadelphia Saving Fund Society building which was a 32 storey one. With modern materials this was considered to be as one of the most ultra modern constructions ever done. The new style gave ways to all architectures in building and this also gained a lot of popularity. It has an everlasting impact on designs regarding the modern age which provided for the development of various other modern forms of construction (Burd, 2008).
Chapter 3 Synoptic Analysis
This chapter will make use of three examples as case studies which will help to reach a final conclusion. The case studies are about the buildings that were constructed during the modern movement and what changes were brought in their designs. The main concept is that design of modern structures pay attention on following advanced technologies and principles of modern design. A fresh form of architecture was developed as a result of increasing revolutions in technology which was because of new and modern age (Evans and Jeffery, 2005).
The modern movement of architecture which took place in the 20th century in Europe was of dominant nature. It grew more and more because of innovations that took place during the 19th century in the field of architecture. This response of this huge step is the development of innovation in technology and eventually the society. It leads to thinking of a completely new world of machines and cities by the artists which made them think about new ways of construction buildings (Rowe, 2011).
A public housing development project was started after the modern movement. It was a combination of a wall of perimeter type which has multi storey flats, public spaces along with play areas. This wall used the south facing aspect in order to utilize light and views across river Tyne. The project took over modern approach and its architect, Ralph Eskrine, adopted to apply principles of modernism with approaches of humanity. Eskrine adopted a more humane approach to the principles of modernism, yet still established function, progress , clean lines, and above all social morality. He worked his plan around Victorian elements of the area such as churches, and some of the original cobblestones and parts of the demolished Newcastle City Hall, were incorporated into the public areas. Finally he was able to construct such projects which make use of new and modernized designs in buildings.
Concept /strategy 2
The case reveals that how the modern movement was able to achieve success in establishing a complete city. a project was started by an architect, Ralph Eskrine, and the name of project was Byker Housing project in Newcastle. Byker started initially as a village but by the end of 19th century the type of housing changed and Tyneside flat became dominant. The conditions that time were not favorable for Byker to concentrate on this new design but he still the architect make note of the character of design and how it can approach to human relations. The finally, the team of Byker plan to implement it and tries to retain its sense of community. This community was one of the first attempts which were made after the modernist movement. It was able to create a relation between that of architecture and community.
This will prevent the buildings to resort back to the traditional forms. The new and innovative architects do not want to view a building as a mere heavy mass of bulky materials put together. Rather they should be such that could be viewed as a structure or space which is enclosed by sufficient light and other features like that of thin curtain walls along with provision of air (Adam, 2008).
From the analysis conducted of the case study it can be concluded that modern architecture has an effect on the architecture and that too a positive one. But, on the other side, it also resulted into some of the challenges to be faced by the architects. With the changing demands of people relating to the buildings it sometimes can become difficult for them to focus on them because changes in technology is becoming faster and faster. The growth of technology has helped the modern architectures to get information on various designs from all over the world so that they can develop the buildings in a more advanced manner. The needs of consumers are such that they need to have more and more of eco friendly materials to be used in construction (The challenges of architectural education, 2011). This poses a lot of problems for them since use of such materials can add up to their costs. This can be a loss for them. The change for the modern architectures is that they have to make use of such materials in order to fulfill their needs as well as to comply with all the requirements (Buchanan, 2010).
Concept/ strategy 3
The modern movement in architecture also showed its affects on Palm Springs, California where the practice of modern architecture was able to transform this place into an ideal destinations for all. The place is present in the Coachella Valley and is surrounded by mountains which after the modern movement became one of the favorite sites for various Hollywood stars and socialites during the mid 1990s. Regarding the architects associated with the development of Palm Springs it has been found that there were many notable architects who were responsible for building of Palm Springs. Some of them were Albert Frey, William Cody, David Wexler, E. Stewart Williams and William Krisel. The main modern development of the palm springs took place during the 1990s.
Chapter 4 Conclusion
What have been leaned and why the study is relevant?
With the help of cases provided, it can be said that the hypothesis set is proved and it is true that modern movement has definitely affected the field of architecture. In addition to this, the study conducted in the dissertation gives the answers to the questions that were framed at the initiation of the dissertation. The present project help to find a solution to the hypothesis formed. In this, the hypothesis that modern movement has a positive effect on architecture and the field have benefitted through it. It can be concluded that though this movement brought with various challenges for the architects but on the other side, it has greatly affected the architecture and brought in new designs.
Suggestions for further investigation
The contemporary styles of architecture are the ones which are used today worldwide in world renowned buildings and architectural forms. These are designed with so much innovation that the external appearance of buildings reveals their very nature and purpose (Gregor, Hart and Martin, 2007). For further investigation all present styles need to be studied in more detail so as to compare with ancient styles.
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- Evans, C., and Jeffery, R.B., 2005. Architecture of the modern movement in Tucson [pdf]. Available through: <http://cala.arizona.edu/sites/default/files/projects/MAPP%20Tucson%20context%20study.pdf> [Accessed on 26th March 2013].
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