- Give different theories of business ethics.
- Provide appropriate social responsibility
- Elaborate on the general issues in stakeholders and their perspectives.
- Analyses the future aspects and the social responsibility with their impact on leaders and also on the managers.
Social media is a platform where millions of people are active on daily basis due to which it become easy for organisation to search qualified and eligible candidates for their vacant job positions(Vitell, 2015). Such platform includes Facebook, twitter, Instagram etc. which provides an opportunity to company to find the eligible people through locating their personal information available on their personal id. This part discusses about the statements which states that “it is ethical for organisation to look up for potential candidates on their personal social media and use their information to support selection decision. To support and argue against such statement, tow theories will be discussed under this part.
In the modern business era, digitalisation plays vast role in the growth and development of the business in effective manner. Human resource is determined as the key consideration of an organisation, as in an organisation management and higher authorities are widely concern on hire skilled and educated people within work place in respect to attaining higher competitive edge through the appropriate collaboration and coordination of employees. Now a day's human life are widely based on social media and usage has been risen from 0.97 billion users in the year of 2010 to 2.62 billion in the year of 2018. There has been a corresponding growth in the use of social media in the workplace with small as well as large business enterprises that increasing their usage between 11% and 21% in the four years from 2012 to 2016. Between 60% and 92% of UK businesses now use social media in some form to support their business activities. Social media is the best tool which is widely used by organisations as their major recruitment tool, this is effective in hiring of applicants from a large geographical area. Social media provides opportunity to both employer and applicant as well, thus employer are able to target specific candidates with the use of social media tools. on the other side applicants are also able to get information about the firm or its operations. In the 21st century social media is considered as the most popular form of communication, with over 1.6 billion monthly users, this is the easy and comfortable way to get information about the any aspect. however organisations are widely use modern tool of recruitment rather than traditional method(Glavas, 2012).
Absolutism: This theory suggest that there is no set of principles and and set of universal aspect which allow to judge a skill. The person who uses this approach always follow to say that who is it to judge. All sets of skill judgement are explained on the basis of set of rules which are required to meet the essential of finding the good and bad. Therefore to judge the skill of a person a set of rule should be made which are essential to pass that case. According to this theory company which uses social media to recruit the candidates should set the essential requirement to pass the criteria of getting selected in the recruitment process. This step follows the guidelines of this theory in which it is suggested that some universal aspects are there to select a candidate. According to this theory the universal aspect are the essential which are needed to select. In this theory, recruiter says that it is not be able to select the candidates on it's basis but the selection will be on the basis of performance which are necessary to select.
A case study is given to the candidates so that they have given a specific set of time to solve that case study. A specific set of rules which are required to select are set such as hand writing and thoughts or perception of candidate on that particular case study. On the basis of this theory, a candidate will be announced to select which will fulfil the required essential for the team. Thus, this theory support the selection process of company through social media.
Social media provides a wide path way to employer to select best and suitable candidate for their job profile. Social media has involved various tools like Facebook, twitter, you-tube, Instagram etc. these are most used sources, which are significantly applied by organisations as their major tools for recruitment. Social media is widely used as a screening process which helps the firm or its management to take appropriate decision in regards to the candidate through analysing its overall profile on social media (Aguinis, 2016). According to Statista (2017), the number of social network users worldwide from 2010 to 2021. In 2019, it is estimated that there will be around 2.77 billion social network users around the globe, up from 2.46 billion in 2017. This will have an opportunity of an organisation to screen and select eligible candidates after analysing their information available on their personal ids. This get support by Absolutism theory who simply rely on the facts that no Principle are there who judge others without knowing them personally. Some things to always involve in a social media policy are like that no employer needs to take a decision that are on age, race, sex, religion, sexual orientation or political beliefs; thus organisation or its employer needs to distinguish among private and professional social media platforms and that they are not required to use social media to stalk applicants and candidates for personal information, but to seek out information about the specific job. Moreover, candidates must be informed if social media or any other online source is used to research information about them that will affect their application, and they should be offered the chance to respond to the material discovered should it influence the hiring manager’s decision. Social media is the easy way to hire people through analysing their knowledge and communication which is suitable for a specific job profile.
Utilitarianism: This theory is based on performing actions on the basis of consequences. The consequences of this theory can be good or bad. The basic idea of this theory suggests that every person or individual should do the task on the basis of it's consequences. Although no one can predict the future to know that what will be good or what will be bad. This is the limitation of this theory. In the case of company's recruitment policy of social media, fraud can be there. To explain this theory against the policy of company a scenario is taken. If company is recruiting the candidate on the basis of a question which should be answered within an hour. There can be a person who will attempt that question by cheating. The person can answer that question with the help of other. This will count as a cheating.
The fraud candidate will now be selected on the basis of performance in that given question. By giving the answer with the help of others, the candidate has not showed its skills and it will also make loss to the company by recruiting that candidate. Hence this theory which emphasis on consequence base can cause a fraud. The person who is selected wants its selection whether it will be done through anyway. So consequence of that person was selection but actions are not decided whether they are right or not. Hence it can be concluded that, according to this theory company should not use social media to recruit the candidates. Such theory is depend on the consequences due to which the chances of getting reliable outcome can be very low. Therefore, this theory restrict company to use social media platform at the time of screening and recruiting of staff due to hasvuing less possibilities of receiving results in favourable of company.
Absolutism is one of the best ethical theories which is used to know and understand the requirements of skills, talent and judging the performance of an individual and know their inclination towards the social media and its related platforms.
This is the theory which argues against the usage of social media at workplace due to maintaining privacy concerns. There are various types of social media platforms which includes Facebook, Instagram, twitter etc. which is mostly used by company to recruit candidates after analysing their personal; information. It brings disadvantages to company as most of the candidates are maintaining privacy of its personal information so that it cannot be misused by other parties for their ow purposes. In Facebook platform, users shows less willingness to indulge in professional activities such as hiring on Facebook as they do not want to include their employers to their Facebook profiles as friends. Recruiting employees on social media will be less profitable as the information collected through such platform may not be genuine or reliable which can bring loss to company in future(Schwartz, 2017). Apart from this, there are various candidates who are not consistently active on social media which brings difficulties for management to communicate with them about their vacancies. High internet prices also restrict the skilled and qualified candidates to go online due to which the company have limited options to recruit candidates. It minimises the chances of selecting eligible candidates which company are expecting for due to having wrong information available on the social media sites. Therefore, instead of using social media to recruit and select candidates the company can go for inviting people at their recruitment programs conducted in their company which enable them to acquiring sufficient reliable and accurate knowledge about the candidates. Most of the people are also took less interest on such recruitments as they considered them as fraud due to having lack of trust.
CONCLUSION: It has been been concluded from the above analysis that social media is an effective tool but not reliable to recruit candidate by locating their information available on their personal social media. The accuracy and reliability of information Is very low due to which the chances of selecting skilled and knowledgeable candidate for an organisation are minimum which in turns decreasing their productivity. Therefore, instead of selecting candidates using social media platform it is important for company to conduct recruitment programs at their company where the whole process of selecting candidates are done.
CS 2) Social responsibility theories and ticket resale
This phase of the project is about an issue of ticket resale and its consequences over the public relation. Now a days, ticket resale has become the common activity where people are doing it habitually and with the main aim of earning the excess profit in the shorter period of time. Social responsibilities has now become the major all around where people are more conservative towards the doing safe and preventive activities in order to be safe, on the other hand, people or even companies are doing such thing to make more and high money. This part will discussed about the social responsibilities and its related theories and concept of ticket resale. This will discuss about the CR model for such practices and activities.
Discussion: Corporate social responsibility is considered as most important response to increase the level of criticism that corporate are facing and experiencing. It is the relation between all such activities which is related to gambling, ticket resale etc. and public relation. Ticket resale is consider as issue, when they are not sold, people try to sell it either by increasing the price or selling it through other source or platform(Kolk, 2016). There are some major problem of ticket resale which has encountered by this case studies. Some are as follow: Paying more than the face value, non-disclosure of hidden fees and drip facing, ineffective customer service, any kind of area, seat or restriction has not been described, overcharging of the credit card, fraudulent or duplicated tickets which may arise the chances of the legal and judicial theft. There are different websites who tricks customer to seems like original tickets. Foe this solution of the ticket resale, there are various fixes of this issue. Such fixes is taken to make sure that ticket resale should be fair to the consumer are as follow:
- It is necessary for the consumer's to know and need better information, which will help them to decide regarding the usage of different sites for ticket resale. Promoters, vendors and venues should mention number of ticket's available whether on pre-sale or general sale(Matten, 2012).
- Ticket companies, artist and promoters must invest in an innovation to reduce the chances of fraud by allowing the name change on ticket or by developing the better ticket system.
- Resale websites should clearly mention the tickets details before or during the booking process which will show various variables such as relevant seats, price, location etc.
For better understanding of the corporate social responsibility, there is a requirement of the appropriate model named as CSR pyramid model, which was framed to embrace an entire spectrum of the society expectation of business responsibilities and expectation. For better and effective understanding, there are four kind of social responsibilities such as economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic. According to Carroll,the use of this pyramid to depict the conceptual model of CSR. Businesses are expected to operate any kind of work or business within the framework of law(Brammer, 2014). Hence the legal responsibilities are predicted as the next layer of the pyramid after the economic layer. After this, third layer is the ethical responsibilities in which those activities or practices are to be prohibited, which has been done by society member even though such has not been codified into the law. Last is the layer of philanthropic responsibilities,which is basically discretionary in nature. Organisation should not undertake ticket resale activities when it is crossing the limit of unlawful activities such as gambling, token money, playing cards in context of selling unsold ticket. All these activities are unlawful and against of the judicial system.
Let's back comes to the CSR model, it says that organisation needs to conduct these activities as per what is stated in the bye-laws and regulation.
- At the economic level, organisation conduct such as activities with the main motive of earning and making the large amount of profit. In organisation such as Stubhub, ticketmaster and viagogo, their business responsibilities are predicted upon the several economic responsibility of the firm. In this business firm needs to ensure about their responsibility and duties while conducting all such activities such as ticket resale by using different platform such as social media, second sale network etc to conduct all such works. Here, the discussion is regarding the resale of the ticket process and procedure. It has to be clear that resale of tickets is not considerable in different region, it puts particular in the financial consequences and burden, which can result to their social interest loss and harms.
- At the legal level, such business are required to operate and conduct within the decided framework by the government and legal body operated in the respective countries and nation. Such frameworks should be followed seriously and also as per the desired law and regulation. In various regions, resale of the ticket are declared as illegal, because, it lead to the malware work and practices, which can harm the social interest and legislations. In this level of responsibility, people and several organisation needs to do these practices under the lawful consideration and legislations.
Sources: Carroll's pyramid of corporate social responsibility , 2018
- At the ethical level, such activities if not fit according as per the society and culture, they are meant to be prohibited and stopped. Justification for the CSR pyramid is an ethics pay. Hence, it tells that activities are to be conduct in accordance with the systematic power given and allotted(Harjoto, 2012). Resale of the entertainment and movies tickets is not any ethical task, as it effects and exploits the ethical consideration of the society, culture and internal environment of democracy.
- At the philanthropic level, in this scope of the responsibilities are narrow and wide. These pyramid purports the sufficient set of an obligation that socially responsible business should fulfil and with the decreasing importance of the laws. In context with the lawful consideration, resale of the ticket has not been approved by any judiciary and law & regulation. Hence, it has to be obligated by the recognised legislation who may be think, it is against the laws and procedure.
CONCLUSION: It is concluded ticket resale is both legal and illegal in different context. Main motive here is to protect the interest of consumer and their choices. These activities are illegal in various situation when any idea of fraud generation , making money through overcharging from the people and gambling etc. In this, social responsibilities is the pre-requisites for the company as well as society to conduct activities in the most suitable and beneficial ways.
CS 3) Stakeholder Issues and Executive Pay
Stakeholders and executive pays has become common and important for an organisation to enhance their financial capabilities. This tells about the earning capacity and wealth managing in the past time. This shows that, in previous time CEO's were paid on the basis of what their peer's used to get in that time. This case scenario will make discussion about what makes the pay of the CEO more high and worker's pay stagnated.
The pay of the CEO has been increased over the years and it has led pressure and burden on the wages and pay of an employee. Stakeholder mapping is the process of debate, research and discussion that draws from multiple perspectives to understand and determine the key list of stakeholders across the entire spectrum. Hence, the entire of the stakeholder mapping is divided into the four phases namely identifying, analysing, mapping and prioritize. It is the complete detailed process and plan for acknowledgement and understanding of the stakeholders are as follows:
Identifying: This is the first step in this whole mapping process, which says that there is no specific list for the stakeholders. The actual list is always depends on the size and nature of business. There is a list of the stakeholders which requires the pre-identification such as owner, customer, employee, industry, community, environment and government etc.
Analysing: Once after the list of stakeholders, it will be useful and beneficial to analysis for understanding relationship and perspective they offer to the company. To understand their relationship and contribution more accurately, BRS has been developed which is a list of criteria to help in analyse each and every stakeholder is as follows:
Contribution: Does the appropriate stakeholder have any kind of information, counsel and knowledge on an issue that could be helpful for the company?
Legitimacy: How legitimate is the stakeholder claim for engagement
Willingness to engage: How willing is the stakeholder to engage into the business
Influence: How much and what is level of an influence does the stakeholder have in the decision making in the company.
Necessity of involvement: How it is important for the stakeholder to get involved in the decision making of the company.
Mapping: Stakeholder mapping is the analytical tool and virtual exercise that one can use to determine which stakeholder are most suitable to engage with the company's decision making and managerial working. Effective mapping enables you to see which stakeholder stands at the what position and when to evaluate to see the actual and desired results(Hopkins, 2012).
The position that you allocate to the stakeholder on the grid shows you the action you need to take with them. The above stakeholder mapping is as follows:
High power, highly interested people(Manage closely): It is required to fully engage this stakeholders and make the greatest efforts to satisfy them.
High power, less interested people(Keep satisfied): It is necessary to put efforts for satisfying these stakeholders, but so much that they become bored by the company policies and regulation.
Low power, highly interested people(Keep informed): It is required to inform such stakeholders and also talk to them to ensure that no major issues are arising. People in this category can often be very helpful with the detail of the project.
Low power, less interested people(Monitor): It is mandatory to monitor all these stakeholders, bit not bore them with excessive communication.
Prioritizing the stakeholder and identifying the issues: In context with company, it is not any practical and necessary to engage each an every group or individual stakeholders with the equal level of intensity and purpose on an equal basis. Being informed about to whom, you are engaging with tend to save money and time.
The above process is recognised as the complete stakeholder mapping along with three key stakeholders identified namely prospects investor, premium suppliers and company's customer who have control over the process and functioning of an organisation.
Expectation: Stakeholders have several expectation in regards with executive pay issue is that they are demanding at-least equal opportunity to employee to provide them with pay and the remuneration to enhance and raise their motivation and confidence level. As it was noticed that salary and remuneration of CEO have raised over time by time, in comparison to employee and other staff workers. Finally, the stakeholder has desired to remove such biasses with other employee of an organisation.
Hence, it is concluded that stakeholder mapping process is an important aspect of every organisation to know actual and current status of every stakeholder and also protect their common interest towards the company activities and function.
When speak in general, corporate social responsibility are connected with the stakeholder, how they are treated by an organisation for describing the expectation from the business organisation. They have different expectation equally with caring about the social responsibility. Three major stakeholder in this case namely Edman, Gelles and Greene have different expectation from the company that they should increase the pay of an employee along with the CEO or any executive pay. Their expectation is that corporate should start giving high to their employee also. Walmart is this case study paying its CEO 64 times more than normal employee(Kennedy, 2012). In one context, it is unlawful and enough to decrease the morale of an employee. Social responsibility must relate this matter to provide fair chance and opportunities for an employee to get higher work responsibilities along with this higher wages and salary. These stakeholder have expectation regarding paying fairly to the employee also in order to raise their morale at the higher and peak level.
For stakeholder mapping, Freeman theory suggests the purpose of mapping for creating and providing value and benefits of stakeholder as much as possible. In order to succeed, executive's must keep and protect the interest of the customer, suppliers, investors and shareholders. It locates given variable to centric of the stakeholder. As a result both stakeholder as well as shareholder needs to take consideration the group of an individual such as investor, trade union, suppliers, customer to protect their common goals and interests. Stakeholder mapping would help in finding the common factors which can enhance their motivation to take part in the functioning and workability of an organisation. Lastly, the main purpose and objective of stakeholder mapping is to regulate and manage common in the functioning and activities of an organisation
CONCLUSION: It is concluded that protecting the interest and motivation of the stakeholder is required for every company to maintain the prospective relation between the top level manager and employee's of an organisation. There should be equal opportunity and chance for an employee to show their potential and skills to rewarded equal. Now a days, involvement of the shareholder is a need to solve any issue and problem. This is because stakeholder also has stake or holding in an asset of the company. All measures such as customer, creditors, investors, supplier, trade union needs to be among the stakeholder to perform his task and duties effectively
CS 4) Future trend in social responsibility and its impact on multinational organization
Social responsibility is an ethical framework which suggest that the organization and the individual has an obligation to act for the benefits of the society at t a large scale. In addition to this it can be defined as the duty which should be performed by every individuals and groups so as to maintain balance between the ecosystem and to the economy. This presented report gives the brief about the ethical theories used to explain the statement in favour and against about using social media in recruitment and selection process. In addition to this second case study explains about the social responsibilities theories and ticket resale. Additionally this assignment focuses on stakeholders issues and executive pay. Lastly, this assignment focuses on the case study of future trends in social responsibility and business impact.
Social responsibility is defined as the ideas which the businesses should adopt taking into consideration to balance profit making activities with those activities which will benefit society. In addition to this it can be referred to as the process of developing organization by creating positive relationship with the society for which they operate. The company which is being taken into consideration in order to explain this case study is Unilever Plc which is one of the oldest multinational consumer goods company in United Kingdom. It mainly deals in food and beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. There are some of the future trends in social responsibility which have impact upon Unilever Plc organization and some of them are mentioned below:
- In future it will be seen that Unilever Plc organization have passes through four different types of four stages of corporate social responsibility( defensive, promotional, charitable and strategic) and practising. The major problem with the current obsession with social responsibility codes and standards is that it encourages a tick box approach, but there may arise the problem of social and environment and to overcome this manger of the organization should need creative solutions like wind-up technologies which will allows the unbaked to carry out basic financial transactions.
- In future self selecting 'ethical customers' will become less important as a force for change. Unilever Plc organization will strongly be encouraged by the government incentives and policies and this will helps in scaling up their choice of editing. Thus, company will cease to offer less ethical product's range and will allow for guilt free shopping.
- In future cross sector partnership will be at top of all the corporate social responsibility approach and it will helps the Unilever company to bring up core competencies and skills within the organization. In addition to this the idea of “Thinking global and acting local” is being in circulation for some decades. So Unilever company is still learning to practice this balancing act and combining international norms with local context. Moreover in future this idea will help in finding local solutions without forsaking universal principles.
- In future if the Unilever company practices corporate social responsibility 2.0 then it is expected that the company will comply with best global practice principles. Thus, it will positively impact the Unilever business organization in future and will helps in achieving better productivity and competitive advantage in the all over the world marketplace.
- In future Unliver Plc company need to demonstrate full life cycle management of their products right from cradle to cradle and it will positively impact the business organization and as well as it will helps in achieving progress to accomplish competitive edge in the marketplace. In addition to this company is also focusing to commit the goal of to generate water neutral production and zero waste production. Thus, it will positively impact the Unilever organization in the form of increase in the maximum profitability ratio of an organization(LaGore, 2013).
- In future generally accepted sustainability and generally accepted accounting practices will be adopted by Unilever organization. In addition to this different consensus principles, approaches, methods and different rules and measures will be adopted so as to set and develop credible corporate social responsibility rating agencies. Thus, it will also help in creating positive impact upon Unilever organization in the form of developing positive brand image in the marketplace.
- In future Corporate social responsibility for Unilever organization will remain a voluntary practice as an innovation and differentiation frontier. In addition to this if the Unilever company wants to form transparency rapidly then corporate social responsibility will be replaced by real-time, online corporate social responsibility performance data flows. Moreover in future company can make use of web2.0 and wiki-style forums for crowdsourcing so that the company can interact with hundred of sustainability experts. Thus, it will help the company to maintain sustainability in the economy and as a result it will helps in achieving maximum growth rate in the marketplace which is one of the positive impact of social responsibility for Unilever company.
- In future corporate transparency of Unilever company will take the form of publicly available set of mandatory disclosed environmental and social data. Thus, it will impact upon Unilever organization as the company have to change the way they manage corporate social responsibility will change. In addition to this as the role of corporate social responsibility generalist is confined to small policy functions so because of which CSR department of Unilever organization will disappear or disperse. So various as aspects of corporate social responsibilities will be required in order to build sustainability and corporate performance appraisal systems(Mahoney, 2014).
- In future corporate social responsibility will be diversified back into its specialist disciplines and functions. In addition to this it will also helps in developing the overall economy and as a result it will indirectly helps in achieving competitive edge in the marketplace.
In addition to this other two CSR future trend are specified below:
- Shift from disaster recovery to climate resilience: With the influx of natural disaster that has been sawn in 2017, every companies have planned to invest more resources for prevention, climate resilience and mitigation rather than just recovery. According to Unilever Plc report, The Future Sustainable Business, no organization will exempt from the consequences of climate change. So to protect their business, communities and supply chain activities, Unilever Plc company must make investment in innovative technology. In addition to this Unilever must redefine business models and also must support policies which can easily address critical climatic challenges.
- Prioritizing privacy and data protection: In 2017 it is being seen that data breaches flew comparatively under mainstream media radar. So Privacy and data protection is considered to be the top of agenda for CS issues in future. As due to this ongoing breaches it is being cleared that Unilever Plc company must protect their personnel information more diligently. It is being identified by Unilever company that consumer data protection and privacy is termed to be number one area where executives expect to increase the resources level over the nest two-three years.
CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that social responsibility is the essential techniques and practice adopted by the Unilever organization. In addition to this it can be concluded that company have purchased fair trade certified ingredients so as to manufacture and produce sustainable products for the development of the economy. Moreover, all the trends mentioned above reflect a widespread scenario of adoption of corporate social responsibility 2.0. In future Unilever Plc company will become significant part of the solution to the development of sustainability crisis, instead of contributors to the problems a they are today.
It has been declared that social responsibility is necessary and required in every and culture society to work and conduct the norms and responsibilities in the most positive and enhanced way. It is also declared that this report is conducted ethically and properly with no excess assumption or any irrelevant information and norms, which would lead to improper and prohibited guidance to the society and culture of an organisation. This report is taken with full knowledge and authenticity of the information related to the topics. Instant Assignment Help Uk is a leading company providing online assignment help in the UK. Our writers have completed 1000+ assignments and are well known for every aspect of assignment writing. We guarantee 100% plag-free assignments and provide on-time delivery along with 24*7 assistance at cheap rates.