Introduction to Women’s Language
Different research studies have concluded that men and women use language differently. As per the widespread belief “women talks more as compare to the men” (Hall and Bucholtz, 2012). But, most of the vresear4ch studies have found contradict findings about this beliefs. Along with this, different genders discuss distinct topics such as men tend to talk about sports, politics and cars but on the other hand women tend to discuss about child care and personal relationships, etc. Most of the recent work in sociolinguistic has focused upon the variation in conversational styles of men and women (Hellinger and Motschenbacher, 2015). The current essay is also focus on features of different language and their use by women and men. Along with this, it also focuses on impact on use of these features and its impact on confidence and tentativeness.Therefore, major objective of this essay is to assess the claim that women do in fact these such features more frequently than men and these features index lack of confidence and nervousness (Gay, Hicks, Santacreu-Vasut and Shoham, 2015).
Essay will focus on the statement of Robin Lakoff in which she focused on gender differences to syntax, semantic and style. In her research study she identified that women used number of linguistic features which she claimed were used more often by women as compare to men and which shows the expressed uncertainty, lack of confidence and nervousness (Ervin-Tripp, 2014). Essay will focus on different ways by which language is used and linguistic attitude. Further, it also shed lights on association between languages, culture and thoughts. Including this, issue of the women’s language is also considered as major part of this report which will help in understanding the major concepts of this essay. In addition, focus will also be given on use of distinct styles of language used by women. Research will find out that weather there is any difference in the way by which women and men make interactions with others. Therefore, the whole essay will focus on women’s language (De Fina and King, 2011).
Features of women’s language
Robin lakoff has identified ten elements of women’s language which are frequently used by women during their conversations (Women's Language, 2015). All these features shows the language attitude of women these features are described as under:
- Hedging: Women use this feature at the timer of conversation which shows the uncertainty and lack of authority. For example, sort of, kind of and I guess, etc (Cook, 2011).
- Politeness: Women generally use super polite words and forms such as would you please and I would really appreciate it if, etc.
- Tag questions: In women’s language, tag questions added to the end of the statement and do not change the statement (Kunsmann, 2013). For example, you would do that, wouldn’t you?
- Emotional emphasis: Women use emotional content and tone that emphasizes on emotions. For example, you are so very kind and I am so grateful to you (Linn, 2014).
- Empty adjectives: Adding a friendly element in the sentence shows the use of empty adjectives in conversation. Although women do not use any meaningful content at the time of conversation.
- Correct grammar and pronunciation: Women expect hypercorrect grammar and pronunciation at the time of discussion and conversation. They use sales less as compare to men (Erickson, Lind, Johnson and O'Barr, 1978). For example, I would be very appreciate if you could show me the way of my destination.
- Lack of humor: women do not use humor and funny words at the time of discussion. So lack of humor is also one of the major feature of women’s language. So, women are poor in telling jokes.
- Direct quotations: Women generally quoted word which have said by others for example, Rita said that he said, “I won’t to do it. ‘So I said, Why Not?” (Larson, Johnson and Haselton, 2012).
- Extended vocabulary: Generally, women use extended vocabulary rather than simple language. For example, the wall should be cerise neon pink tracer. So, use of extra vocabulary is also considered as major feature of women’s language.
- Declarations with interrogative intonation: Generally statement are used by women for asking questions by intonating question mark at the end of the statement (Berger, 2013). For example, that sounds like a good thing to do?
Overall, different features of women’s language has reflected that generally women use different words for different purpose as compare to the men which make different meaning for others. These meanings are difficult to understand by others. They use some words which shows disagreement and lack of authenticity. Along with this, they use different words with extra politeness and emotions (Baxter, 2012). Women focuses on correct grammar and pronunciation and extended vocabulary.
Sociolinguistics can be defined as a descriptive study which shows the effects of different aspects of society such as cultural norms, expectations and context on the way of language used. Along with this, it also helps in determining the effects of language used on society (Guillaume, 2014). It also focuses on the use of different language between distinct groups because of various ethnicity, religion, status and gender and income, etc. Some research studies also focuses on the gender in sociolinguistics in which study shows the use of language by different gender. Effects arise on use of language because of the belongingness of the person with different class, social language, restricted codes, culture and beliefs, etc (O'barr, 2014).
History of Sociolinguistics has disclosed that “social determinants has strong association with different language which increases variations for linguistic theory”. In contrast, some of research study has also disclosed some factors about the international; sociolinguistics. Along with this, background research studies have concluded that language is one of the major tool of communication which can be influenced by the place, speaking, people, condition and situation (Elmes, 2013). Place is very important factor because generally it shows the style of language which have used by different people. Including this, sociolinguistics has reflected that gender and sexual identity also affect the use of language because of the culture and society. Overall, sociolinguistics shows the effects of different elements on use of language by different gender men and women (Gay, Hicks, Santacreu-Vasut and Shoh