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EDC151 - Child Development for Educators

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Introduction

Child development go through different stages and incorporates biological, psychological and emotional changes. This period remains form the time of birth till the end of adolescence. Other than this, with the use of parental training or other other factors can promote child development (Milteer, Ginsburg and Mulligan, 2012). Basically it is a continuous process define predictable sequence having specific course for child. In this, parents play vital role in child development and their life as well by providing them quality of their care. Along with this, it is important to effectively understand cognitive, emotional and educational development of children. Present report is based on different case studies about the child development.

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Case Study 1: Gender Differences in Development

Consider the experiences of Thomas and Ella and the relevance of these experiences for 10-12 year old children.

The present case study is highlighting the gender differences in height and weight of children of around 10-12 years of age. According to the case study, it can be depicted that Thomas; an 11 year old boy is having short height problem. He is also among the smallest students in its class. He is also having a small brother who is 9 years old but the height of both brothers is nearly same. This factor has also brought inferiority complex in the mind of Thomas but to overcome this, he has found a way and that is cracking jokes in class or speaking in loud volume so that he can be noticed as well. Thomas has also joined karate classes along with his best friend Harry so that they can become more powerful.

Another personality discussed here is of Ella who is studying in 5th class and is also the tallest girl in her class. She is very self-conscious and takes care of herself very well. But since there are various kinds of complications a girl has to go through while at a growing age so Ella was facing the same. The incident that happened with her related to menstruation was very embarrassing and her mother also didn't allow her to come to school during these days. Ella is also frustrated with all this and wants to leave the school forever (Tabors and Patton, 2014).

Normally, children under this age face these kinds of problems as they face various kinds of developments inside their body. From a research conducted, it was known that from age three, girls spend most of their time in working while boys spend more of their time for play so their body development also happens in different manner. So, it is not a big issue and both Thomas and Ella should give some time to this or their parents should provide them good counselling associated with this.

Provisions for stresses associated with the early stages of puberty.

Puberty can be defined as the stage in which significant changes in the body of every individuals. When these kinds of changes happens in a person, they go through a shocking period as they do not know what is happening to them. It gives a feeling of stress as well as embarrassment to the individuals and they stop meeting people as well (Rush and Shelden, 2011).

Teachers are required to provide good guidance to the students and make them understand that it is now a part of their life and it happens with each and every person. IN case of Thomas, he is not growing so this is giving him the stress and because of this only he is not able to get mixed with people of his age. In case of Ella, she has faced menstruation for the first time and she was very shocked by this. It is obvious that every girl will go into shock if something likes this happens with them for the first time. So, these kinds of stress happens to an individual when they are their in their early stages of puberty.

Steps taken to help the students like Ella and Thomas or will they come out this problem easily

Both Ella and Thomas are under huge stress and it is very necessary for them to come out of this stressful situation in an effective manner because then only they will be able to live their life in an effective manner (Shuler, Levine and Ree, 2012). There are various kinds of steps which will be taken to bring both of them out of this problem:

  • They will be proper guidance provided to them when they will feel them and through help of which the individuals become mature as well.
  • They will make them understand about this is changes in body in advance only so that if it happens then the people will be ready to face such kind of changes happening inside their body.
  • School should also provide special classes in which they will teach students about all the kinds of changes and dealing with them in a proper manner.

Case Study 2: Second-language Acquisition and Reading

Identification of the linguistic, academic and cultural problems encountered by a student

In this case study, Morteza has been lacking the fluency which is required for the acquisition and reading of the second language i.e. English. Cultural is known to be carrying different dimensions such as customs, ideas and skills relating to a group of people. The culture has been known to affect behaviour and cognitive abilities which influences learning, therefore it can be said that different religion carry different approach to learning. A student is exposed to cultural problems as second language is known to be completely different from its first counterpart resulting in confusion and misunderstandings (Larsen-Freeman and Long, 2014). The attempt to learn second language is aimed to attain competency in the same which can be hindered by the cultural differences in the same. There are numerous language transfer obstacles as well which arise with transference. A student is known to use of existing language to learn a new language which has emerged to be a problem in internalisation.

Identification of problem which are encountered by non-English speaking families

It can be said that students belonging from non-English speaking families are encountered with difficulty in learning English as well. It has become essential for a teacher to address cultural and educational background together so that learning can be facilitated. The cultural differences are amongst the barriers which possess different expectations from a student. For instance students are only confined to transmit knowledge in one culture and in other than are required to be form a critique which becomes very difficult (Ortega, 2014). The learning and acquisition of second language is referred to as a crucial. The reason being that primary language have been fed to a student in an natural manner with the help of environment, society and culture. Therefore learning the second language is not as easy as the primary ones as a student have to take in new cultural ingredients and dimensions and understanding so that it can be acquired in the right manner. It is extremely important for teacher to possess intercultural training and cultural perception so that right eduction can be imparted to children. When a teacher is able to create an environment that is culturally and linguistically rich learning can be acquired by a student. If there is a major difference between native language and second language, a student will be exposed to numerous difficulties which are to be countered through forming reliance on the similarities amongst the two. The differences in terms of pronunciation, syntax and structure to be resolved effectively so that stress of learning of new language in context of a student could be minimised.

Appropriation of the strategies used by teacher

The strategies which has been undertaken by the teachers of Morteza were highly appropriate. Teacher tried to understand behaviour of student and tried to cater teaching in the manner which is most suitable for him. The catered his needs with time and space so that he feels like being a part of classroom as she had a similar experience with herself as well. The result which were received with very good as Morteza have become more confident and carries an enhanced participation as well. The bonding with colleagues helps in facilitation learning and participation in numerous activities in the right manner leading to holistic development.

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Strategies that can assist student in more effective manner

It has been identified a student when learning a new language have to gauge different cultural dimension, syntax and pronunciation so that he can be termed as proficient. The teacher played it right by allotting right time and space so that Morteza is able to adjust himself in the environment. It is very important for the teacher to emphasize on enriching the teaching through incorporation of cultural aspect so that second language can be availed by a student in the right manner (Dixon and et. al., 2012). The first strategy which can be employed by a teacher is to opt for variety of modes of communication so that a student is able to opt for the most suitable approach. While looking to present information, additional oral and visual medium are to be opted for so that concepts and teachings are to be understood properly. The strategies which focus on learning should be planned, monitored and evaluated so that they are able to match students on cognitive and social grounds. The diversity and distinct ethnicities of second learning classes could be countered with providing with opportunity to relate their culture with aspects of second language so that they are able to connect the two and understand properly.

Case Study 3: Concrete Materials in a Problem-solving Task

Use of concrete material in problem resolution

The manipulative approach has been considered for the mathematical development of children. It is considered to be extremely important for children to be possessed with distinct concrete material with which they are able to manipulate, classify and construct knowledge relating to mathematics. The manipulates can be referred to as physical objects which are employed by a teacher in facilitation of learning for students. It is known to bridge the gap between formal and informal mathematics. For instance: In the given case study, teacher has used a square-based pyramid so that they are able to answer relating to presence of oranges in pyramid like structure. The reason for which they are being preferred in mathematical subject is that they are helpful in moving students from experiences to abstract reasoning.

Role of teacher in resolving mathematical problem

Teacher in this scenario played a crucial role as he had helped children in resolving existing problem related to mathematics. The teacher have relied on using manipulative's so that students are able to use their personal experience in overcoming particular query (Moreno, Ozogul & Reisslein, 2011). The teachers have been using instructional practices which persuades student's to carry out collaborative practices leading to ideal results. Teachers help students in recalling their endeavour and experiences so that they are able to resolve their problems. Teachers in this scenario persuaded them to think hard so that they are able to resolve their problem with collaborative effort. The provision of chance to explain their thinking and sharing the same will result in facilitation of learning in a most suitable manner.

Identification of element of Vygotsky's and Piaget's theories of children's thinking

The theories which are provided by Piaget and Vygotsky related to the cognitive development of a child. The primary theory which has been considered in Piaget's theory of cognitive development which stated that children's rely on their personal experience when it comes to understanding of the reality. The Piaget's theory is categorised on four major grounds which sensorimotor period (0-2 years), Pre-operational period (2-7 years), period of concrete operations (7-11 years) and finally formal operations period (12+ years). The element is which is to be considered in this segment is flexible and abstract reasoning undertake to resolve a problem. In this approach there are numerous possibilities relating to an query. The errors and challenges which are encountered by them provides a overview of their cognitive behaviour and problem.

Vygotsky's gave a socio-cultural theory which stated that thought processes of children are influenced by their social interaction with the world. The manner in which language have been acquired and retained are crucial in development of intellectual abilities of individual. The categorisation of their theory is carried out through elementary mental function, zone of proximal development, role of culture and language. All these element attempts to highlight role of social context which plays equally important role in the development of a child (Griffin and Care, 2014).

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above report that educational psychology plays a crucial role in the defining the manner in which learning is being facilitated along with their outcomes. The various grounds which are undertaken in this report are social, emotional, cultural and cognitive aspects which shape learning of a children right from the birth. It is an attempt to identify learning approaches and manner in which they could be improved. The educational psychology is an manner through which profession of teaching is enhanced through involvement of reflective practices and critical thinking approaches so that skills and knowledge of children's could be enhanced.

References

  • Milteer, R. M., Ginsburg, K. R., & Mulligan, D. A. (2012). The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: Focus on children in poverty. Pediatrics. 129(1). e204-e213.
  • Tabors, P. O., & Patton, O. (2014). One Child, Two Languages: A Guide for Early Childhood Educators of Children Learning English as a Second Language.Education Review//Reseñas Educativas.
  • Rush, D. D., & Shelden, M. L. L. (2011). The Early Childhood Coaching Handbook. Brookes Publishing Company. PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285.
  • Shuler, C., Levine, Z., & Ree, J. (2012). iLearn II An analysis of the education category of Apple’s app store.
  • Wittmer, D. S., Petersen, S. H., & Puckett, M. B. (2013). The young child: Development from prebirth through age eight. New York: Pearson.
  • Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. H. (2014). An introduction to second language acquisition research. Routledge.
  • Ortega, L., 2014. Understanding second language acquisition. Routledge.
  • Dixon, L. Q. & et. al (2012). What we know about second language acquisition: A synthesis from four perspectives. Review of Educational Research. 82 (1), 5-60.
  • Moreno, R., Ozogul, G., & Reisslein, M. (2011). Teaching with concrete and abstract visual representations: Effects on students' problem solving, problem representations, and learning perceptions. Journal of Educational Psychology. 103 (1), 32.
  • Griffin, P., & Care, E. (Eds.). (2014). Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills: Methods and approach. Springer.
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