Consumer Behavior

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Consumer Behavior

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Significance of Consumer Behavior

Consumer behaviour is the study of processes which are used by individual or organization to  satisfy the needs and also study the impact of these processes over consumers and to the society. Consumer behaviour is an important theory for the any organization which helps them to innovate their existing marketing strategies far better. This theory helps the marketers to module their organization in an effective manner by understanding the needs of consumers. It also insures the regulation of consumable goods and therefore maintains the economic steadiness. According to Cui (2015) helps marketers to overcome their marketing  problems as consumer behaviour theory enables them in utilizing their marketing resources in more appropriate manner (Cui, 2015). Consumer behaviour not only improves the performance of company but also improves the working of middle-men and salesmen. Marketing programs became more effective with analysing consumer behaviour. It helps the marketer to rapidly shift to the trends and patterns which attracts the consumers. On the other hand, Routledge and et.al (2012) has also stated that theory not only helps in identifying current trend but also enables to forecast future trend (Routledge and et.al., 2012). Consumer behavioural theory help in differentiating the customers on behalf of their taste, preferences and needs. It became easy for marketer to segment their customers according to their wants. For new marketers, pre consumer behaviour study help them to easily and successfully enter in  the market and existing marketers can hold their customers. Competitive capability of the company is improved by the the consumer behavioural theory. It helps the marketers to satisfy the needs and wants of the customers before the competitor (Hafeez and et.al., 2015). Marketers can do their job dynamically, actively, and effectively against competitors. It ensure the efficient and effective use of resources and also initiates the organization to became consumer-oriented.

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The concept of Nostalgia

In the contemporary era of marketing to influence the behaviour of consumer organization are using the powerful tool of marketing that is they are incorporating nostalgia marketing in the action. Nostalgia is defined as sentimental feeling from the past experience of product or services. However, the nostalgic experience generally focuses on providing reassurance of past feeling of accomplishment and happiness. In the present context of influencing consumer behaviour nostalgia plays significant role as branding strategies that enhances the image of brand in the mind of customers. According to Gineikiene (2013) one of the positive aspect of introducing nostalgia concept in the marketing is to elicits past emotional reaction regarding the products so that consumer in the present scenario can purchase the products (Gineikiene, 2013). Furthermore, nostalgia marketing focuses on establishing strong coalition of emotional connection among the brand and the ultimate customers. As per the view of Cui (2015) the feeling associated with the past not only connect the consumer from the past but it also result in evoking self directing thoughts of an individual (Cui, 2015).

In the contemporary environment for initiating the advertising campaign organization are using the concept of nostalgia for attracting the customers. However, it further support the individual in influencing their behaviour regarding purchasing the particular products. Hunt and Johns (2013) has also stated the concept of nostalgia in marketing is favourable than that non-nostalgia ad as it generally evokes the past experiences and emotions associated with the particular brand (Hunt and Johns, 2013). On the other hand, (Zhao, Muehling and Chai, 2010) has also stated that nostalgia is also associated with increasing and enhancing social bond that results in responding to negative moods with the optimistic memories (Zhao, Muehling and Chai, 2010). Furthermore, both intangible and tangible stimuli results in arousing the nostalgic feeling that further affect and influences the behaviour of customers for purchasing the products and services. Marchegiani and Phau (2010) has also concluded that the effectiveness of nostalgia within advertisement enhances the level of brand awareness in the market through creating emotional aspect for the products and services (Marchegiani and Phau, 2010). In addition to this, nostalgia concept basically serve three global psychological purpose that it basically generate positive aspect among the customers, it results in enhancing the self-esteem level of consumer as well as it may also serve as repository of societal adjoining.

According to Olivier (2011) nostalgia concept within the marketing also result in turning bad feelings into the good ones that outcome in enhancing individual mood, increasing and raising the individual self-esteem, enhancing and raising the feeling of social connectivity etc (Olivier, 2011). therefore, in the modern scenario, nostalgia plays significant role within marketing as through this organization can easily communicate with the customers so that they can easily accomplish the objective of marketing.

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Role of Nostalgia in consumer behavior

In the present scenario, Nostalgia can be considered as a feeling of sadness or happiness which has been developed by remembering events occurred in the past. Furthermore, it has started to play very important role in the entire process of buyer behaviour. In simpler terms  Nostalgia is defined as the condition of being homesick. Consume behaviour consist of set of different characteristic which helps individuals to determine whether they should buy a particular  product or not. As per the view of Marchegiani and Phau (2011) people start living in their past when they are nostalgic (Marchegiani and Phau, 2011) This means that they tend to buy products and services which they used to buy in past and made them happy. Sometime, individuals also starts perceiving the fact that their past was more positive as compared to their present in which they live. This means that nostalgia has an direct impact on consumer behaviour and it encourages them to buy products which they have already experienced earlier. This means that factors such as advertisement, marketing, prices, quality etc, do not have any kind of impact on the overall buying behaviour of individuals. However, Muehling and Sportt (2014) argued that the marketers have come up with new concept of nostalgia marketing in order to attract customers and affect their buying behaviours (Muehling and Sportt, 2014). Many brands in the world such as Pepsi, Nike etc. have started using design and logos which they were using in their past operations. These make people remember of about their childhood days and also encourages them to buy that particular product or services. Nowadays, brands are required to become aware of all the major factors which affects behaviour of people in market. Therefore, they with the help of using old designs and ads they force people to think about their past.

REFERENCES

  • Hunt, L. and Johns, N., 2013. Image, place and nostalgia in hospitality branding and marketing. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes. 5(1) pp.14-26.
  • Zhao, G., Muehling, D. and Chai, J., 2010. The moderating role of consumer affect on the effectiveness of nostalgia advertising. Enhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing. 25(4). pp.143.
  • Hafeez, M. and et.al., 2015. Determinants of nostalgia sensitivity in nostalgic driven advertising.International Journal of Academic Research in Psychology. 2(1). pp.556-580.
  • Marchegiani, C. and Phau, I., 2010. Away from “unified nostalgia”: Conceptual differences of personal and historical nostalgia appeals in advertising. Journal of Promotion Management. 16(1-2). pp.80-95.
  • Marchegiani, C. and Phau, I., 2011. The value of historical nostalgia for marketing management. Marketing Intelligence & Planning. 29(2). pp.108-122.
  • Olivier, M., 2011. Civilization Inoculated: Nostalgia and the Marketing of Emerging Technologies. The Journal of Popular Culture. 44(1). pp.134-157.
  • Online
  • Cui, R., 2015. A Review of Nostalgic Marketing. [Online]
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