Construction technology can be referred to as a technique which is used for creation of strong and long lasting buildings. This helps civil engineers in constructing infrastructures by way of feasible tools and methods. Construction technologists develop any structure by following various stages like designing, planning, constructing and managing buildings or infrastructures like dams, airports, highways and bridges. In modern era, civil engineers have started making use of various hardware, software, tools and other necessary equipments by which they can easily implement the construction of building. The present report is based upon a scenario where a complex hotel building is being constructed by way of a structural and conceptual design. The location of building is ascertained to be 1 km away from motorway. The structure of building will be a 5 storey hotel complex. This report will explore different types of buildings along with techniques used for construction. Also, it discusses different types of civil engineering infrastructure technology along with distribution of a range of building services along with their application in construction.
Differences between residential, commercial and industrial buildings
Construction technology is considered as the valuable concept that helps in developing effective construction building with the usage of timber, glass, concrete, metal, stones etc. It has been analysed that there are numerous of project of construction which can only be done because of this technology as it helpful in delivering best effective services to customers according to their requirement. There are mainly three types of construction building that is commercial, industrial and residential buildings which are used for different purpose.
Ways in which sustainability can be promoted in building projects
As per the given scenario of Hotel building, it is important for contractor to build safe and secure Hotel as it is going to be used by many people. Some of the main sustainable ways which can be used by site inspector of hotel building are described as below:
- Selection of material : It is important for the construction head of Hotel building to choose high quality material in order to develop strong hotel. For this, site inspector will initially analyse requirement of raw materials and then select among them for the same.
- Developing energy efficient buildings: Hotel buildings are generally used by lots of people which requires excessive level of energy equipment to support actual requirement of hotel after its preparation. It can be said that if high quality of energy sources and equipments will be used by site inspector then it will be helpful in enhancing sustainability of the same hotel building.
Apply the terminology used in construction technology to a given building construction project
Construction terminology refers to the key Jargon which are used by constructor while developing an effective building. In context to Hotel building, site inspector of this five storey building can use below mentioned construction terminology that will be helpful in constructing strong and long lasting building.
- Concrete: It is kind material which is generally made by mixing cement, water and some other materials in order to prepare fine paste for construction. Concrete is helpful in developing strong building which is used from the starting time to its end of construction site.
- Plaster: Plaster is considered as the building material that are mainly used at construction site to protect wall and ceiling. It is mainly used as the coating material at wall in order to give protecting and fine finishing that also contributes in giving attractive interior look.
Describe the pre-design studies carried out and types of information collected for a given construction site
While constructing an effective Hotel building near Thames valley, it is important for the site inspector to gather required information related site location, its soil, feasibility of workers and other required resources. It can be said that without gathering information of site project manager can not construct effective building. In relation to the case scenario, it has been analysed that there are numerous of things on which site inspector should focus before constructing substructure. As evaluation, it can be said that location of Hotel is near Thames valley where flow of water is very high. This directly means that soil of this area is flexible in nature and contains huge inspects that can be seen as harmful factor for substructure. This factor can also result in weak holding of substructure with the soil. As a result, it impacts negatively over the sustainability of Hotel building.
Construction of various foundations and their suitability for use
Foundation term in construction industry belongs to lower or base of building over which whole building is going to be constructed. It has been analysed that there mainly two types of foundation that is deep foundation and shallow foundation. Both of them are used by business organisation according to the requirement of construction building and site. These are described below along with the explanation of its suitability for use.
- Shallow foundations: This kind of foundation owns capability of transferring shifting weight of building to earth surface which is available in nearby surface. According to the requirement of hotel building near Thames valley raft foundation is best suitable as this foundation is spread on overall area which gives support to whole structure of building that is going to be constructed in the same area.
- Deep foundations: In this type of foundations weight of the building is transferred to the earth deeply below the surface area. This in depth surface area gives strength to the building that contributes in enhancing its strength. In context to hotel building pile foundation is an effective kind of foundation as it transfers loads of whole 5 storey building by columns to ground level where shallow foundation is settled down.
How site information impact on foundation design
Foundation design is mainly based to two elements that characteristic of soil and its weight which is going to be constructed on it. It can be said that if site inspector have collected effective and valuable information then they will be able to construct strong and long lasting Hotel building that will be able to manage with the loads of 5 storey buildings. It has been analysed that by getting an effective information site inspector can easily manage with the barriers or obstacles which are observed by them at the time of pre studies. In relation to Hotel building main impact of information on foundation design can be seen in its effective designing which will be helpful in creating strong Hotel building as well as bridge.
Functional characteristics of elements of superstructure and the design selection criteria for their use
Superstructure refers to that part of a building which is above the ground. The major elements of superstructure are:-
- Walls: It is referred to as an area and its major function is to bear load. The main requirement of the building is that walls should be strongly built by making use of high quality raw material and other equipments. Also, they should be made in a way such that walls can bear the load of whole hotel.
- Roofs: Roof of building is a necessary component to protect the structure from air, rain, heat etc. The roof of hotel should be properly constructed so as to protect the building from any kind of damage.
- Floors: The floor is required to be constructed in a manner that it is totally durable. High quality of raw materials and concrete should be used by civil engineer. Also, tiles and wooding flooring can be used in hotel to make it seem lucrative.
- Windows and doors: The hotel should be built in a way that the doors and windows are soundproof so as to ensure that the privacy of guests can be maintained. Hotel should have a number of window so as to capture the view of beautiful river near the building.
- Staircases: The staircase should be constructed such that it complements the interior of hotel and height of staircase should be standard so as to ensure ease.
- Finishes: Various types of finishing materials can be used while construction of building like marble, paint, false ceiling etc.
Describe the pre-design studies carried out and types of information collected for a given construction site
Pre- design studies is an essential element for carrying out the construction of building. Also, project manager has to collect important information about site so that the construction can be implemented smoothly. Data is to be gathered in relation to availability of various resources that are necessary while carrying out the construction of 5 storey hotel building. This includes information about labour, transportation, electricity and other necessary raw materials and equipments that are necessary to execute the structure. Construction of structure would require various types of raw materials which need to be ascertained and acquired in time.
Component parts of an element allow it to fulfil its function
Site inspector has to make a proper plan so as to develop an effective building. There are various necessary components which needs to be taken into consideration while carrying out the construction of building. Durability of walls need to be ensured along with some other elements which are:-
- Concrete: It is one of the crucial elements for building the walls and floors of hotel. This would assist the civil engineer in making the walls in a way that they are strong and can resist fire.
- Drywall: Also known as plasterboard, this refers to a panel which assists the project manager in constructing the ceilings and walls of structure.
- Plaster: It is a type of building material which assists in making coating of walls and ceilings such that their strength and decoration is done effectively.
Compare different types of structural frame used to carry the primary and secondary elements of the superstructure
There are a number of structural frames which are used for constructing the superstructure building. These are:-
- Braced Frame Structure: During the construction of hotel building, this structural system will assist the project manager in making a structure that can resist wind pressure and earthquakes.
- Rigid Frame Structure: This structural framework helps the site inspector in resisting itself from deformation. It consists of beams and columns that ensures the strength of building.
In present hotel construction plan, civil engineer has adopted a rigid frame structure as it helps in ensuring that the building constructed possesses strength as near the hotel, there is a stream which may impact the structure adversely.
Techniques used for remediating the site prior to construction commencing
Remediation is a process of fixing things that aren't right. In regard to construction industry, remediation is a process done by civil engineers before construction in order to ensure sustainability. The main purpose behind remediation is to identify and works for fixing contaminated land. In regard to construction of Hotel building, it is necessary for civil engineers to measure the condition of a land, which leads in improving its sustainability for a longer duration. In this process, civil engineers works for treatment of a soil which is done by before construction. The major technique used for remediation is defined below:-
Chemical treatment: In this context, the construction site of hotel is near Thames valley which leads in making soil of construction flexible and clay. It is essential for civil engineers to do appropriate chemical treatment of soil for sustainability of hotel building for a longer time. With the help of chemical treatment soil can be remediated in according to construction requirement of hotel building.
Types of substructure works required for the infrastructures
Substructure is a name given any structure of a building that is present below ground level. Foundation of a hotel forms a part of substructure. It helps hotel to transfer dead load and all other loads to sub soil present underneath. As per this context, various types of substructures that can be taken into consideration while constructing a hotel are as follows:
- Shallow Substructures: These substructures are also known as spread footings. These structures tend to get all load of columns together and spreads it over a larger area. It helps in maintaining balance.
- Deep Substructures: These structures are named so as they are found too deep below ground surface. They generally transfer loads to deeper strata or surface if soils at surface are not suitable as per requirement. Types of deep substructures include piles, piers and cassions.
Identify superstructure, substructure and civil engineering structures necessary for a given building construction project
- Superstructure: Superstructure of a building is a part that is entirely above ground surface or basement. In other words, it is referred to any structure or building that is built on the base. Superstructure includes numerous structures like floor, beams , roofs, stairs, windows , doors and so on. These are important structures needed for building a hotel.
- Substructure: Substructure is a name given any structure of a building that is present below ground level. Foundation of a hotel forms a part of substructure. It helps hotel to transfer dead load and all other loads to sub soil present underneath.
Civil engineering structures: These are basic structures built wherever natural terrain needs to be changed in order to complete infrastructure projects. These structures suffer very high amount of loads and traffic. They also get affected by environmental factors.
Supply arrangements for primary services
For an effective construction of hotel building, it is necessary that arrangements are made in association with primary services. Supply of primary services is concerned with electrical system in relation to structure of hotel. It comprises of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system which helps in ensuring that guests enjoy healthy, secure and comfortable stay at hotel. Also, arrangements are to be done in relation to lift and escalators as they form an important part of hotel which ensures the ease and comfort of people who will stay in hotel. Supply arrangements also have to be made by civil engineer for energy so as to ensure that execution of hotel is done in desirable manner.
Distribution arrangements for primary services
The distribution arrangements can be defined as a way of allocating entire tasks and resources to labours according to their skills in appropriate manner. It would leads to obtain better outcomes appropriately. In this regard, it is essential for site inspector of present hotel to develop effective and efficient strategies. It includes identification of scope, give instruction to workers for performing well, monitor their performances etc. In addition to this, site inspectors also required to include two major factors while planning for distribution arrangements. It includes cost oriented (direct & indirect cost) and schedule oriented (time and resources). Apart from this, site inspectors also require to apply policies for optimum utilisation of resources, gain high support of labours for constructing hotel appropriately. Furthermore, they should also concern on implementation of beneficial of effective strategies, in order to make correct distribution of arrangements related to primary services. All these procedures help in building in an attractive hotel and reducing risks associated with the same.
Elements of the superstructure used to facilitate the primary services
Superstructure comprises of a number of elements like roof, floor, walls, finishes, staircase, windows etc. Primary services include lifts and escalators, energy supply, controlling system of building, safety in relation to resistance from fire etc. In case of fire, workers can save themselves from getting harmed by way of exit doors and windows. Also, by way of lifts and escalators, labourers can be assisted in carrying the necessary raw materials to upper floors. With this, necessary equipments, concrete and raw materials can be easily carried from one place to another.
Distribution of the primary services impact on the overall design of the building
Primary services are concerned with HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning), lifts and escalators, fire safety etc. These services help in overall designing of building by providing the necessary components which are an essential part of hotel building. Distribution of primary services ensures that various essential resources for making the building are timely reaching the location of construction. Primary services also facilitate the overall construction process by making a plan according to which the stages of construction are ascertained and timely execution of hotel building is done.
From the above report, it can be concluded that for an effective construction of hotel, proper planning, designing, monitoring and controlling is required. Also, it has been analysed that various raw materials and resources have to be acquired for carrying out the construction of structure. Furthermore, it has been observed that there are various kinds of elements of a building that are to be considered during the execution like walls, floors, windows, staircase, doors, roofs etc. Besides this, arrangements also have to be made in relation to primary services. A proper design for construction of building helps in timely completion of project.
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