Introduction to Cultural and Creative Industry
Cultural industry and creative industry are the terms which are used frequently from past few previous years. These terms are used sometime individually and some time interchangeably. Cultural and creative industry definitions. According to UNESCO cultural and creative industries are termed as sectors in which activities are organised in such a way that it can help in production and reproduction process of goods and services. These industries are also responsible for distribution and publicizing of products and services. Advancements has made industrialist to make innovation in products product promotion which can help in increasing economy. It makes a relevant chain to make innovation in promotion of product which can help in gaining customer' attraction. Concept of creative industry has come into effect recently and it is overtaking cultural industry. Present report describes about difference between cultural and creative industry. Further more, more impact of economy on cultural and creative industry has been explained. Policies and theories related to cultural and creative sector has been illustrated.
Definition of cultural and creative industry
Cultural industries are the ones which that helps in producing real and artistic product. These products are used in generating economy and wealth by manipulating assets of culture (O'Connor, 2015). These sectors standardizes and manipulates item of culture help in regulating these items. Standardization is required due to changed needs and demands of consumers. These demands are fulfilled by corporations. This industry focuses on combining creation and production which are unidentifiable and cultural. Creativity and innovation is used in this industry to make product innovative which have some ethnic and cultural significance (Hesmondhalgh and Baker, 2013). The main feature of cultural sector is that they produces goods which helps in promoting cultural values. Culture is maintained by these products and economy gets increased. Every society posses its own culture and values which can be seen in people of that society. This culture has been combined with creativity and innovation. Innovated products economy constitutes culture and advanced technology. This approach is used in making strategies that gives positive outcomes in developing nations. As per (Kong, 2014)culture sectors has became more significant after getting merged with advance an modern techniques. This industry was insignificant before its integration with modern technology. It was juts a decorating tool before advance technology took place.
Views View of people have changedhas been changing and they started considering this industry as source of generating economy. People has moved their attention towards this industry in making innovative products. It is an inherent tool for developing economy. It helps in creating employments and promotion of tourism (Williams, 2015). Cultural industry is helping society in creating goodgreat image of community. These industries can be classified in organisations which have low or moderate rate of earnings. Majority of people who works in this sector are generally self employed. These people posses job satisfaction in their employment. Firm working in this sector have flexible timings of work and have flexible working environment. Dependency on consumer is high in this industry. Getting customer attraction in this sector is done by advertising of product by using various networks.
Creative industries are referredmentioned as economical activities which are implemented by single person's skill. This help in generating wealth and economy by utilizing talent of individual. These creative worker helps in driving economy and development of culture (Kong, 2014.). Various countries have different meaning and categories of this industry. These meanings are categories using four models which are DCMS model, text symbolic framework model, concentric model and copyright model. The main input in this industry is taken from individual's talent and skills. This industrybusiness requires creativity and intelligence. Product made at the end using this approach is tangible and concrete. End goods and products have innovation , creativity and aim to fulfil the needs and expectation of market. Creativity involves ideas which are authentic, real and concepts. These ideas makes end product which has some invention. These industry generate creative economy. According to (Wing‐Fai, Gill and Randle, 2015)creative industries are classified into four parts which are arts, media, heritage and function creations.
Economy created by creative industry supports in creation of jobs and diversification of culture. Thus it help in growth of economy. It allows in combining economics, innovation and creativity. Further this is combined with modern technologyengineering and intellectual capital to generate economy (Hartley, Wen and Li, 2015). Firm work in this industry are generally big and multinational organisation. Small businesses are also in this industry but are in few numbers. Creative industry has accomplished a growth of 11 % in the year 2015 to 2016 (Williams, 2015). in 2015 product and services has contributed 5% of economy. This industry has given employment to 8 million people of the world.
Creativity is tool which is used to interact with 4 kind of capital which are social assets, cultural assets, human capital and constructional capital. Creative industry is regulated by academic property rights which are patents, trade mark and copyrights. The issue with intellectual property is that it only gives favour to developed countries and not to the countries which are yet to be developed.
Difference between cultural industries and creative industries
Difference between cultural and creative industry is that these two terms sometimes used in place of each other. Creative sectors are focusedc centred at on cultural sector. Creative industry is not restricted to cultural one. Cultural product can be differentiated by the fact that these products have cultural attributes (Mangematin, Sapsed and Schüßler, 2014). These characteristics can not be measured using scale of money and capital. Each product on cultural sector has some value for both customer and producer. This value can be described as identity for any specific society.
DifferenceDifferentiation between both industries can be explained as cultural industry requires input from human activities. Cultural product are produced by taking input form humans and community. There is also a creativity in cultural products and services. These goods are part of creative products and services. Creative product covers many cultural products. Whereas creative goods do not posses cultural values. These products can only be used commercially but they requires innovation in production (Andres and Chapain, 2013). This innovation involves new designs and reconstruction. Contradictory to cultural sectors creative sectors consist mainly large business companies. Organisations in this sector pays high wages and salaries to its staff. Companies in this sector have scheduled timings for their staff workers.
Example of cultural goods and products is arts, cultural and musical festivals, historical films, literature movie shows, cultural dance shows etc. Cultural industries also involves tourism, cultural events, publishing of magazines, paintingfine arts, architecture, music and film festivals, commercial arts, broadcasting, craft and food festivals. Whereas creative sectors involves arts, music shows, publicizing, and advertisement, design of software, development of mobile applications and various digital media operations. Creative industries involves companies like web design organisations, photography firms, movie theatres, marketing organisations, art and picture galleries.
Impact on economy by cultural industry
Culture industries economization is defines as making of products which can impact the economy of country (CIC . 2017) in positive means. It refers to making culture best to accomplish growth in economy (Hesmondhalgh and Baker, 2015). Cultures economization is an analysis of cultural industry in which cultural organisation are included. In this analysis both public and private firm of this industry are included. In this evaluation of cultural sectors culture is considered as production which is to be consumed by citizens of country.people. These people are the customers of these products who can help in growth of economy. Enhancements in volume of assets from cultural commodities supports in rise of economic conditions. Marketization of these product is impacting economy to great extent. This describes that culture goods and service are influencing economy in positive manner.
Financial assistance is necessary for this sector. This financial support helps in bringing economic gains for the society (Moore, 2014). Economic of this industry includes innovation and interaction with creativity. It also involves policies made for culture and trade. Cultural economy has created creative economic systemeconomy by merging it with technology. Both of these economy can be used for development intent. This economy is also help in preserving cultural values and heritages. Informing people about culture of the region supports in earning which in turn increases frugality. Further more this economy also help in diversification of culture. Social values of region and human development also gets promoted due to this. Cultural economy involves commercial values and these are mixed with cultural values.
Cultural industries are very significant for social togetherness and building of nation by motivating intercultural value to others (Scott, 2014). This mainly focuses on art and culture sectors. Artistic products generate revenue which also impacts on economic growth. It is difficult to measure monetary value of culture industry but they are important in development of economy. The revenue generated for cultural sector also support in preserving heritages and arts of the country. This sector requires large financial support form government. Monetary assistance form the governmental authorities will help in development of this industry. This sector also helps in generating jobs but these jobs are poorly paid. So this industry requires some support from authorities to grow same as creative industry. Enhancements in this sector is necessary to improve its revenue which can help in economical growth of the region.
Impact of economy creative industry
Creativity is defined as making of new ideas which are used in combination to create a product which is innovative. The product made by this creativity posses function creations and inventions. Creativity contain economic values which helps in generation of jobs and employment. It has various advantages for the creative business person. This industry leads to innovation which help in improving productivity (O'Connor, 2015). This industry impacts economy by providing jobs and employments. Inventive sector produces creative business man, creative class, inventive groups and networks. Economy of this sector constitutes to economy of country by making use of technology and multimedia. Demand of creative goods and services is also increasing tourism in the country. Revenues generated by this industry drives economy by making innovation in products. This innovation helps firms to compete in market. Countries have to make some policies for the betterment of creatives sectors. Developing countries need to regulate these industries as this sector influences economy to great level.
One of the best example of creative industry is advertising sector. The advertising department includes making of ad materials, campaigns, making of ads and their promotion. It also involves surveys and researches on customers, marketing management, plans forfro communication and arrangements of media. Advertising sector impacts a lot on economic growth. It impact buying power of consumer in positive manner. It helps organisations in gaining customer attraction by maintaining balance of culture values. Thus creative economy has major impact on economy by merging media and technology together. More over, there is prediction that this economy will grow more in upcoming years. It is also forecasted that it will generate more jobs and employment in the world
Contribution of creative industry in employment
This industry has been contributing in growth of employment. This sector has generated jobs especially for labour people. Thus impact of advertising sector on labour is difficult to be measuredmeasure. Creative industry gives employment to artists like painters, colourists, photographers and marketers. Flexibility in this sector makes it more dynamic and attractive. This sector has employed 647, 600 people in the year 2015 (Hartley, Wen and Li 2015.). In the United Kingdom creative industry's wages has made 48 percent of the total revenue of the region. Advertising sector has major influence on labour people. This industry has rendered income of 25 billion in the year 2013. Income from other creative industry was reported 16 billion. In the year 2009 this sector has given employment to 95,000 people approximately. In UK this industry make 5 % of country' revenue (Williams, 2015).
Major effect of creative industry is on advertising sector because they uses modern tool and technology in their production. This effects employment in both positive and negative ways. The positive impact is that the workers works speedily so that they can make time for their other interests.
Impact of policies related to cultural and creative industry
Major impact of creative and cultural industries is on labour market. This impact is totally dependent on policies made by government of the country. Support of government for these sector help in generating employment. It is required that some policies should be formed to reduce the risk of insecurities in jobs. This can be implemented by government and it will help in utilizing the unemployed labours. There is high possibilityexpectation that creative sectors and advertising industry will grow at higher rate. Authorities working for these industries should make some policies that ensures utilization of innovative products and goods. More over, advertising sector can be used to consume culture by making use of advertisements. Governmental policies can help in banning the ads which are against value of culture (Wing‐Fai Gill and Randle, 2015). Policies will help in restricting those ads which have discriminative attributes. Regulation will support in decreasing insecurities in employment. Many creative sectors are having disorganised labours. It concludes that this sector is at its initial stage and do not have trade unions. According to …. creation of these industries are adding to the decaying of trade unions. The creative industry employs young people who can give innovativemodern ideas to increase productivity. Insecurity level in this sector is potentially high as they do not have trade unions to fight for their rights. Thus it is generating social insatiability.
Workers who are self employed are creating more uncertainty. This industry provides employment to people temporarily which creates more insecurity. In European Union countries 20 percent of workers who got employment in cultural industry were given temporary job. 32 percent of employees in cultural sector of country are self employed. Negative impact of advertising industry is that is use only modern technology and machines. This creates uncertainty in employment because machines works faster than workers.
However , each country have some different culture so it is impossible to make global policies for these industries. So it is a duty of government authorities to make some rule that can regulate these industries people. Some strategies are required to be made by government to from policies. It is necessary that policies should be formed to ensure security of job (Kong, 2014). These policies should be balanced with national policies of the region.
Transition form cultural to creative industry
From the previous years focus of people, has been moved cultural to creative industries. Increased technology is moving focus of people towards creative industry. This industry uses all the modern technologies and machines in production process. All the businesses are finding this sectors profitable to grow their productivity. Creative sector is helps in diversification of economy and gives new life to the product. Cultural sectors focuses only on using older methods of production. Though these methods maintains the value of culture yet these methods are not effective as creative ones. Concept of creative sectors is very new but this industry is growing at faster rate. Due to this reason concentartionfocus of people is shifting towards creative industry. Cultural industry has been facing many challenge due to which it cannot provide full employment to every one. Whereas creative industry is generating employment for people which is helping in economic growth of country (Andres and Chapain, 2013). Creative industry involves many industries which is gaining attraction of people to this sector. Advertising industry is major part of this sector which is creating many jobs for the public. Inventive sectors are far away from cultural ones and thus it is creating dependency on this industry. Contradictory to that cultural industries do not depend on art only but it also depends on technology an innovation. Cultural sectors involves cultural product which shows the value of culture such as music shows , fashion, arts etc. whereas creative sector involves digital computing and technology. This sector requires large financial support form government. Monetary assistance form the governmental authorities will help in developmentimprovement of this industry. This sector also helps in generating jobs but these jobs are poorly paid. People now a days are very much familiar with technology and machineries. Demand of creative goods and services is also increasing tourism in the country. Revenues generated by this industry drives economy by making innovation in products. Due to this reason most of the business are transiting to creative industry (Scott, 2014.). Profit and revenue generated for this sector is very high which is shifting focus of public towards it. Thus it is required that people should not depend heavily on creative sector as it is at it initial stage. Equal importance should be given to both the sectors to develop economy.
Summing up the present report it can be concluded that there exist vast difference between creative and cultural industry. There are various aspects of cultural industry and it reflect about various characteristics that are associated with the cultural industry. It differ from creative industry on the basis of the output produced by the industry. Range of various firm includes employment aspects, behavioural aspects and outcomes given. Cultural industry produces various types of tangible and intangible products. Cultural industry delivers private and public both the types of goods and goods produced by this sector are associated with the artistic work done and it is important that supply and demand in this sector should meet properly. Artworks purchased and music and theatre are major goods delivered by this sector. This sector comprise of commercial and non commercial organisations firms and thus size and revenues earned by the firms is the major characteristics of the cultural industry. Creative industry is associated with the products that provide creativity and intellectual capital. End products that are delivered by creative sector comprise have high economic values and it helps for creating jobs in market. And meeting the market values.
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