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Complex CSS Techniques

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Different CSS Styles

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Introduction

CSS is a style sheet language which is basically used to describe the presentation of any document which is written in markup language. It is designed to separate the content and the presentation including various aspects such as colours, fonts and layouts.

In this report we will discuss about different CSS styles, website designing, hyper text transfer protocol and its application, standards of World Wide Web. Also, there are different constraints which are faced by the web developer during project management that must be overcome.

a. Accurate description of the project objectives

The main objective of the project is to give a new, fresh look to the existing website which is named as Baker's Galore. The development in the existing site are that the website needs to optimised for use on mobile devices, it should also optimize for the different resolutions of different monitors and the website must found easily when anyone searches on the web for different local services across the Australia (Al-Douri and et.al., 2013). Also, the loading time or the buffering time of the website is also very high. Hence, all this above mentioned problems should be overcome by the web developer and provide the better result to the client Delilah Baker. In order to overcome these problems the web developer will make some changes in the existing website or layout. It can be done by making some the adjustments or changes to the images as well as by rearranging the columns. This results in the improvement of the accessibility of the website from the mobile devices.

b. Two project constraints

Any restriction which defines the limitations of the project is known as the constraints in the project management (Elshaafi and Botvich, 2012). There are basically three types of constraints which is faced during the management of any project which are as follows:

1.Scope
2.Time
3.Cost

Out of this above mentioned three constraints, two constraints i.e. time and cost are the major constraints. In the time constraints the work has to be done in some specific time which is also known as deadline of the work. One should not cross this time limit to complete the project. This impacts wrong impression on the clients and also the image of the company also decrease (Gemain and et.al., 2012). Therefore, the work must be completed in particular period of time. Another major constraint is cost or budget, sometimes the client have the fixed budget to complete the particular work. The Delilah Bakers put some financial limits in front of web developer i.e. the whole website should become better and new or fresh in some fixed amount of money. These makes the developer think more innovative and efficiently to reduce the cost of the project and to earn the sufficient profit. Some times the developer faces losses due low budget of the project or if they exceed the time limits. To become a good web developer, an individual should be able to manage all these three constraints which are faced by them during management of project.

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c. Description of the CSS3 styles for improving the site

The CSS3 is comes after the CSS which stands for cascading style sheet used for formatting  of files and sites which consists the look of files and documents. For use CSS3 user must use dot before adding properties for class (Iñeguez, 2016). This CSS is updated with the CSS3. Now latest CSS3 includes modules are like selectors, model boxes background and borders, image values and replaced content , give effects on text, transformation in 2D/3D, animations, multiple column layouts and user interface. Using this CSS3 user can use some in build styles which is already created in CSS3 using some classes. In CSS3 consists various properties for classes. Example of properties are like border radius, background, padding, width, height, border radius, background position, background repeat etc. Using these properties user can change the formating for any document. These properties have some values like for padding : 20 px, user can use pixels as well as percentages. User can also use an image in the background properties. CSS3 consists three properties 1) background size, 2) background colour and background clip (Keller and Nussbaumer, 2010). Using these three properties for background user can set the size for background, change colour for background and add clip for background. User can change the look for button. Button has some properties and can use a button hover.

d. Logical reason for CSS3 style sheet

The CSS is the style sheet for used to change, add look of any document and web pages. CSS is a language that helps in styling and formatting for the documents. CSS give description that HTML elements must be displayed. The CSS consists some basic properties like background-colour, colour, text-align, font-family, font-size etc. So using this it saves peoples time. CSS is very helpful in the styles for the web pages. The CSS have some properties but CSS3 is the modern style sheet after CSS. CSS3 consists some advanced properties which is not included in the CSS. The CSS3 has advanced properties which gives an advanced option for styling like for buttons ,user can use hover, coloured buttons, shadows on buttons etc., transformation in 2D / 3D etc. CSS does not contain these types of advanced properties for styling (Martin, Ferguson and Beilharz, 2010). CSS not provides advanced properties but CSS3 provides advanced properties for selectors, model for boxes, backgrounds and borders, image values and replaced content, effects on text, transformation on 2D / 3D, animations, multiple layouts for columns and user interface. If user want rounded borders then he/she must use border-radius property with values which is take in two ways one is in pixels and second is in percentages.

e. Explanations of the following concepts:

1.The principles of website designing

The principles which are generally used to design the web based media which consists of basic guidelines for interaction design or layout designs. The designed principles are generated from various types of fields such as graphic design, human computer interaction, colour theory, typography, design models and processes. There are ten effective principles of web designing which are mentioned below:

Purpose : Before designing any website, its purpose must be cleared i.e. what are the needs of the users. There must be specific information on each page of the website which fulfils the need of the users.

Communication: User wants to get information quickly, so it is necessary to have clear communication. Therefore, it must have proper headings and sub headings.

Typefaces: Sans serif fonts (Verdana and Arial) should be use as they are easy to read online. Also, the ideal font size should be 16 px.

Colours: By using proper contracts of colours between texts and background makes the reading easier (Mary and et.al., 2011). Also, the balance and harmony are created by the complementary colours

Images: Proper image should be placed on website as an image can speak the thousand words and also attracts the users.  Also, one can add graphics, videos and infographics as they are more effective for communication than text.

Navigation: The user should easily find the content which is important for them within three clicks. It should not be a complex process.

Grid based layout: The content of the website should be grid based layout i.e. it should be in columns, sections and boxes because it looks better. If we do not place the content in grids , then it will become messy.

“F” pattern design: The information display on the website should follow top to bottom and left to right order, which is more comfortable to read.

Load time: People does not like the website which takes higher loading time (Meyer, 2010). The programming and coding should be very effective and efficient that it should takes less time to open.

Mobile friendly: Nowadays, people used to access the website from various devices which have different sizes of the screen. Therefore, it is important to make the mobile friendly website.

2.Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) protocol and its application

HTTP is an application protocol for hypermedia, distributed and collaborative information system. For World Wide Web (WWW) the HTTP is act as the foundation of the data communication. It is basically a protocol which transfers or exchanges the hypertext. The main application of the HTTP is retrieving of the resources which are inter linked and led to the world wide web's establishment. The HTTP's development was started in 1989 at CERN by Tim Berners Lee. Its standard development was coordinated by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). To enable or improve communication between servers and clients, HTTP is designed which permits the intermediate network element (Shimin, 2012). Uniform Resource Locator (URL) are used to locate and identify the HTTP resources.

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3.Hypertext markup language (HTML) and extensible hypertext markup language (XHTML)

HTML: It stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. The HTML was originateb by Tim Berners Lee in 1987. It is the main language which is used to create the web pages and the other informations which are displayed on the browser. The extensions used for the filename are .html or .htm. This language is developed by W3C and WHATWG. The format of this type of file is document file format. Its main function is to write the web pages. There are various versions of the HTML are available in market such as HTML 2, HTML 3.2,  HTML 4.0, HTML 5.

XHTML: It stands for the Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a family of mark up languages which extends or mirror versions of highly used HTML which is also a hypertext markup language. The extension used for XHTML are .xhtml, .xht, .xml, .html, .htm. This language is developed by the World Wide Web consortium in 2000. The format of this type of file is markup language type. Its main function is that the extended version of the HTML which is stricter and based on XML. There are different  versions of XHTML which are available in market such as XHTML 1, XHTML 1.1, XHTML 2, XHTML 5.

4.CSS rules and their affects on document styling and the layouts

The rule set of CSS consists of declaration block and selector block. The element of HTML which we want to style is known as selectors. Whereas, in the declaration block there are one or more than one declaration which are separated by semicolons. CSS properties like value and name are separated by a colon, it is included in each declaration. By using the declaration block of the CSS rule one can easily change the colour and font style of the selector. In CSS, there are three types of selectors i.e. ID selector, class selector and contextual selector.  And in declaration there are two types of declarations i.e. properties and values.

5.  World Wide Web Consortium standards

For World Wide Web, the main international standard organization is World Wide Web Consortium, which is also known as W3C. It was founded by Tim Berners Lee at Massachusetts Institute of technology laboratory for computer science (Thilina and et.al., 2013). It has 461 members who works together for the development of the standards regarding World Wide Web. W3C have different types of standards such as CSS, CGI, SKOS, SOAP, XML, XHTML, OWL, SVG, etc. when there are large specifications then it can be divided into different independent modules which matures at their own pace.

CONCLUSION

In the above report, we conclude that there are various factors which should be consider during development of the websites. The website should be design in such a manner that it can easily opened in different devices of different screen sizes. Also, the colours, graphics and fonts used in website should be very effective which attracts the users. All the rules and regulations  of CSS must be followed by the web developer. The content or the information on the website must be fresh and different from others i.e. more effective keywords should be use which helps in improving the search ranking of the website.

REFERENCES

  • Al-Douri, Y. and et.al., 2013. Morphology, analysis and properties studies of CdS nanostructures under thiourea concentration effect for photovoltaic applications. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 8. pp.10688-10696.
  • Elshaafi, H. and Botvich, D., 2012. Trustworthiness inference of multi-tenant component services in service compositions. In Computer Science and its Applications (pp. 301-312). Springer Netherlands.
  • Gemain and et.al., 2012. Photoluminescence studies of CdS layers for solar cells. physica status solidi (c). 9(8‐9). pp.1740-1743.
  • Iñeguez, J. B., 2016. Back-Analysis of Slope Failures by Numerical Techniques. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. 21, pp.615-625.
  • Keller, M. and Nussbaumer, M., 2010, September. CSS code quality: a metric for abstractness; or why humans beat machines in CSS coding. In Quality of Information and Communications Technology (QUATIC), 2010 Seventh International Conference on the (pp. 116-121). IEEE.
  • Martin, A., Ferguson, S. and Beilharz, K.A., 2010. Mechanisms for Controlling Complex Sound Sources: Applications to Guitar Feedback Control. In NIME(pp. 364-367).
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